Citing websites & online media: APA (7th ed.) citation guide

 

 

This guide is based on the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th ed. It provides selected citation examples for common types of sources. For more detailed information consult directly a print copy of the style manual.

Keep track of your document references/citations and format your reference lists easily with citation management software.

Blog posts

For citing blog posts see citing articles in our guide.

Online media

Refer to APA's Online media for more reference examples and information or consult the guide directly (Section 10.15, pp. 348-349). 

Facebook, Tumblr, LinkedIn, & Reddit

Author, A. A. (YYYY, Month day). Content of the post up to 20 words. Site Name. URL

Reference list example

National Institute of Mental Health. (2020, September 14). Suicide is complicated and tragic, but is often preventable. Knowing the warning signs for suicide and how to get help [Infographic]. Facebook. https://bit.ly/3kkBF5v

Reference in text example

(National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], 2020)--[group name first appears in parenthetical citation]
(NIMH, 2020) [subsequent use]

Comments

  • Author can be the name of a group.
  • Find more style guidelines when abbreviating the name of a group on APA's Group author abbreviations or directly consult the guide (Section 8.2, p. 268).
  • Note any audiovisuals in square brackets [Infographic] after content element.
  • Do not alter the spelling and capitalization in posts. Keep hashtags and links.
  • Provide emoji's name in square brackets if unable to to replicate, for example [winking face]. Refer to Unicode Emoji Charts for emoji names. An emoji counts as one word.
  •  If no published date available, use (n.d.).

Twitter & Instagram

Author, A. A. [@username). (YYYY, Month day). Content of the post up to the first 20 words. Site Name. URL

Reference list example

SFU Library (@sfu_library). (2020, September 10). Join us on Sept 22 for the first of our Fall series of hands-on, interactive, online Knowledge Mobilization workshops! [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/sfu_library/status/1303814348775673856?s=21

Reference in text example

(SFU Library, 2020)

Comments

  • Author can be the name of a group.
  • Keep @ symbol when part of username and place in square brackets [ ] (Section 9.8, p. 287).
  • Find more style guidelines when abbreviating the name of a group on APA's Group author abbreviations or directly consult the guide (Section 8.2, p. 268).
  • Do not alter the spelling and capitalization in posts. Keep hashtags and links.
  • Provide emoji's name in square brackets if unable to to replicate, for example [winking face]. Refer to Unicode Emoji Charts for emoji names.
  • An emoji counts as one word.
  • Use (n.d.). if no date available.

Webpages or website

Use webpages or website if no other reference category fits for example, journal, blog, conference proceeding (Section 9.2, p.282).

A document or report found on a website

For citing a report found on a website see citing reports in our guide.

Quoting or paraphrasing part of a website

See more examples and details on APA's Webpage on a Website references or directly consult the guide (Section 10.16, pp 350-352).

Not sure how to identify and find the elements you need to cite a webpage? See What information do I need to cite a webpage

Author, A. A. (YYYY). Title of work. Site Name. https://xxxxxx

 

Name of Group. (YYYY, Month Day). Title of work. Site Name. https://xxxxxx

Reference list example

American Red Cross. (2019, April 15). Tornadoes - How to stay safe. https://www.redcross.org/about-us/news-and-events/news/2019/tornadoes-how-to-stay-safe.html

American Red Cross. (n.d.). Make a plan. https://www.redcross.org/get-help/how-to-prepare-for-emergencies/make-a-plan.html

Ewoldt, J. S. (2020, August 14). 6 ways to reduce your sugar intake. Mayo Clinic. https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/nutrition-and-healthy-eating/in-depth/6-ways-to-reduce-your-sugar-intake/art-20267400

Reference in text example

(American Red Cross, 2019)
(American Red Cross, 2019, "Tornadoes - How to stay safe") [when quoting]

(American Red Cross, "Make a plan")

(Ewoldt, 2020)

Comments

  • When the author and site name are the same omit the site name [Section 9.33, p. 298].
  • For in-text citation, if there is no author the title of the webpage is used in its place [Section 8.14, p. 264-265]. Capitalize major words in the title (Section 6.17, p. 167].
  • For the reference list citation, if no author, the title also replaces the author [Section 9.12, p. 289]. Titles in the reference list use sentence case [Section 6.17, p. 168].
  • When making in-text citations, use paragraph numbers (abbreviated to “para.”) if page numbers are not available. If there are no paragraph numbers, use the heading. The heading may be shortened if necessary.
  • Do not include retrieval dates unless the source material is likely to change over time and there is no archived date. When required use the following format:  Retrieved Month Day, YYYY, from https://xxxxxx after the site name. See APA's Webpage on a website with retrieval date for examples.
  • Find more style guidelines when abbreviating the name of a group on APA's Group author abbreviations or directly consult the guide (Section 8.2, p. 268).
  • Use bracketed description for works outside of peer-reviewed academic literature: [Letter to the editor], [Audiobook], [Photograph], [Brochure], [Press release], [Computer software], and [Supplemental material]. Refer to Section 9.21, p. 292 and see relevant examples in Chapter 10 of the guide.
  • There is no period after the URL.
  • Do not insert a hyphen when breaking a long URL.

Webpage on a news website

See more examples and details on APA's Webpage on a news website or consult the guide directly (Section 10.16, Example 110, p. 351).

Reference list example

Weber, B. (2020, September 28). Canada's health inequalities between rich and poor exposed in new study. HuffPost. https://www.huffingtonpost.ca/entry/canada-health-inequality-study_ca_5f71f4fcc5b64deddef13346

Reference in text example

(Weber, 2020)

Comments

  • For articles published in an online news source (e.g. Bloomberg, HuffPost, Salon, Vox) not associated with daily or weekly newspapers

Whole site, not a single document or web page

See more examples and details on APA's Whole website references or directly consult the guide (Section 8.8, pp. 268-269 & Section 10.16, pp. 350-352).

Comments

  • If website is mentioned in general (not any particular information on the site), provide name of website as part of the text and place URL in parentheses.
  • No references or in-text citations needed.
  • Link the name directly if writing online.