Citing audiovisual media: APA (7th ed.) citation guide


This guide is based on the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th ed. It provides selected citation examples for common types of sources. For more detailed information consult directly a print copy of the style manual.

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Audiovisual media

Refer to APA's advice on Audiovisual media for more reference examples or consult the guide directly for more information on citing audiovisual media, including determining the author based on media type (pp. 341-342).

Audiovisual templates

Stand alone media:

Director, D. D. (Director). (Year). Title of work [Description]. Production Company. URL


Part of a greater whole:

Writer, W. W. (Writer), & Director, D. D. (Director). (Year, Month Day). Title of episode (Season No., Episode No.). In P. P. Producer (Executive Producer), Title of series. URL

Audio: music recordings, podcasts, speech recordings

Consult the guide directly for more information on citing audio works (Section 10.13, pp. 344-346).

Reference list example

King, M.L., Jr. (1963, August 28). I have a dream [Speech audio recording]. The Martin Luther King, Jr. Research and Education Institute.

Wilbur, M., & Keene, A. (Hosts). (2019, March 2). Native mascots: Really, still? (Season 1, Episode 3) [Audio podcast episode]. In All my relations. 

Reference in text example

(King, 1963)
(Wilbur & Keene, 2019)


  • Describe the work in square brackets: [Audio podcast episode], [Audiobook], [Song], etc..
  • There is no period after the title.

Audiovisual: films, TV shows, YouTube or other streaming videos

Consult the guide directly for more information on citing audiovisual works (Section 10.12, pp. 342-344).

Reference list example

Breitenfeld, J. (2007, February 25). Ghost Towns and Death Valley [Video]. YouTube.

Brodeur. M. (Director). (2001). Dance of the warrior [Film]. National Film Board of Canada.

Sorkin, A., Wells, J., Schlamme, T., Misiano, C., Graves, A., O'Donnell, L., Jr., & Noah, P. (Executive Producers). (1999–2006). The West Wing [TV series]. John Wells Production.

Vlogbrothers. (2020, June 5). So much to do: An interview with Maya Rupert [Video]. YouTube.

Reference in text example

(Breitenfeld, 2007)
(Brodeur, 2001)
(Sorkin et al., 1999–2006)
(Vlogbrothers, 2020)


  • There is no period after the title.
  • When the @ symbol is part of a username, include it and the username in square brackets (Section 9.8, p.287).
  • Provide a time stamp for direct quotations from audiovisual works instead of a page number (Section 8.28 p. 274).

Visual: Artwork in museum, PowerPoint slides, photographs, clipart/stock image, maps retrieved online

Consult the guide directly for more information on citing visual works (Section 10.14, pp. 346-347).

Reference list example

Reid, B. (1980). The Raven and the First Men [Sculpture]. UBC Museum of Anthropology. Vancouver, Canada.

World Health Organization. (2015). Estimates of the global burden of foodborne diseases [Infographic].

Reference in text example

(Reid, 1980)
(WHO, 2015)


  • Do not include abbreviation of a group author (organization) in the reference list.
  • When the publisher is the same as the author omit the publisher from the source element (Section 10.4, p. 329).
  • There is no period after the title.
  • Do not insert a hyphen when breaking a long URL.