Citing articles: APA (7th ed.) citation guide

 

 

This guide is based on the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th ed. It provides selected citation examples for common types of sources. For more detailed information consult directly a print copy of the style manual.

Keep track of your document references/citations and format your reference lists easily with Citation management software.

Blog post

See more examples and details on APA's Blog post and comment on a blog post or consult the guide directly (Section 10.1, Periodicals, p. 320).

Reference list example

Bodnar, M. (2020, June 24). Researching Indigenous business topics: New guide to save you time! BUEC Buzz. https://www.lib.sfu.ca/help/research-assistance/subject/business/buec-buzz/new-indigenous-business-resource-guide

Lane, J. (2020, September 28). Celebrate your academic integrity this week. In Common: The SLC blog. https://www.lib.sfu.ca/about/branches-depts/slc/incommon/academic-integrity-week

Reference in text example

(Bodnar, 2020)

(Lane, 2020)

Comments

  • Same format as journal articles. The name of the blog is italicized same as a journal title.
  • For citing comments on a blog post refer to APA's Comment on a blog post example

Journal articles

Not sure how to identify and find the elements you need to cite a journal article? See What information do I need to cite a journal article?

See more examples and details on APA's Journal article references or consult the guide directly (Section 10.1, Periodicals, pp. 316–321).

Article with a DOI

Reference list example

Dudley, M. Q. (2017). A library matter of genocide: The Library of Congress and the historiography of the Native American holocaust. The International Indigenous Policy Journal, 8(2). https://doi.org/10.18584/iipj.2017.8.2.9

Gruenwald, J. (2009). Novel botanical ingredients for beverages. Clinics in Dermatology27(2), 210–216. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clindermatol.2008.11.003

Louth, S. M., Hare, R. D., & Linden, W. (1998). Psychopathy and alexithymia in female offenders. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 30(2), 91-98. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0085809

Turner, J. H. (2007). Justice and emotions. Social Justice Research, 20(3), 288-311. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11211-007-0043-y

Reference in text example

(Dudley, 2017)

(Gruenwald, 2009, "Green botanicals in beverages" heading, para. 3)

(Louth, et al., 1998) [first use & subsequent use]
(Louth et al., 1998, p. 93) [first & subsequent use - when quoting]

(Turner, 2007)
(Turner, 2007, p. 292) [when quoting]

Comments

  • For a typical citation: Capitalize all major words of the name of the journal itself.
  • There is no period after a DOI
  • When quoting online articles without page numbers, provide: a paragraph number (count if necessary), a heading or section, or a combination of paragraph and heading/section (Section 8.28, p. 273).
  • If, and only if, each issue of a journal begins on page 1, give the issue number in parentheses (not italicized) immediately after the volume number (which is italicized). There is no space between the volume and issue number.

Article without a DOI

Reference list example

Labbo, L. D. & Place, K. (2010). Fresh perspectives on new literacies and technology integration. Voices from the Middle, 17(3), 9–18. https://library.ncte.org/journals/vm/issues/v17-3/9939

Walters, W. (2008). Bordering the sea: Shipping industries and the policing of stowaways. Borderlands E-Journal, 7(3), 1-25. http://www.borderlands.net.au/issues/vol7no3.html

Reference in text example

(Labbo & Place, 2010)

(Walters, 2008)

Comments

  • For print journal articles, end the reference after the page range.
  • If from a nondatabase URL that resolves for reader (they do not have to login to gain access) include at the end of the reference.
  • Academic research database information is not required. See APA guidelines on Database information in references or consult the guide directly (Section 9.30, p.p. 296-297).
  • There is no period after a URL.
  • For a typical citation: Capitalize all major words of the name of the journal itself.
  • When quoting online articles without page numbers, provide: a paragraph number (count if necessary), a heading or section, or a combination of paragraph and heading/section (Section 8.28, p. 273).

Article more than 20 authors

Reference list example

Fountain, J. C., Clevenger, J. P., Nadon, B., Youngblood, R. C., Korani, W., Chang, P., Starr, D., Wang, H., Isett, B., Johnston, H. R., Wiggins, R., Agarwal, G., Chu, Y., Kemerait, R. C., Pandey, M. K., Bhatnagar, D., Ozias-Akins, P., Varshney, R. K., Sheffler, B. E., …Guo, B. (2020). Two new aspergillus flavus reference genomes reveal a large insertion potentially contributing to isolate stress tolerance and alatoxin production. G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics, (10)10. https://doi.org/10.1534/g3.120.401345

In text example

(Fountain et al., 2020) [first & subsequent uses]

Comments

  • For works with 21 or more authors: include the first 19 names, followed by an ellipsis, then the final name with a period at the end of the author element.
  • For any work with up to 20 authors: include all 20 names in the author element of the reference.
  • Check out the APA's blog post on this new change to Include up to 20 author names in a reference

Magazine articles

See more examples and details on APA's Magazine article references or directly consult the guide for additional examples (Section 10.1, Periodicals, pp. 316-321).

Reference list example

Mauro, S. (2009, November). A red tail returns. Aviation History, 20(2).

Morell, V. (2006, March). Wolves of Ethiopia. National Geographic, 209, 124-135.

Nohara, Y. (2020, October 1). Japan's lost generation is still jobless and living with their parents. Bloomberg Businessweek. https://www.bloomberg.com/features/2020-japan-lost-generation/?srnd=businessweek-v2

Property and Environment Research Center. (2007, Winter). Less is more when it comes to packaging. PERCreports. https://perc.org/2007/12/15/less-is-more-when-it-comes-to-packaging/

Reference in text example

(Mauro, 2009)

(Morell, 2006)
(Morell, 2006, p. 131) [when quoting]

(Norhara, 2020)
(Nohara, 2020, "For women, mostly dead-end jobs" section, para. 5) [when quoting]

(Property and Environment Research Center [PERC], 2007) [first use]
(PERC, 2007) [subsequent use]
(PERC, 2007, para. 4) [subsequent use - when quoting]

Comments

  • For a typical citation: Capitalize all major words of the name of the journal itself.
  • If there is one, include the DOI as the last element for the reference.
  • Academic research database information is not required. See APA guidelines on Database information in references or consult the guide directly (Section 9.30, p.p. 296-297).
  • If from a nondatabase URL that resolves for reader (they do not have to login to gain access) include at the end of the reference.
  • There is no period after a DOI or URL.
  • Give the date shown on the publication: year+month for monthlies / year+month and day for weeklies.
  • When quoting online articles without page numbers, provide: a paragraph number (count if necessary), a heading or section, or a combination of paragraph and heading/section (Section 8.28, p. 273).
  • Online magazines may be missing volume, issue, and/or page numbers, so can be omitted from reference.

Newspaper articles

See more examples and details on APA's Newspaper article references or directly consult the guide (Section 10.1, Periodicals, pp. 316-321).

Reference list example

All four pillars needed to combat drug scourge. (2004, May 15). The Vancouver Sun, p. C6.

Bushey, C. (2020, September 30). Sara Nelson: The union boss fighting to 'put workers first.' The Financial Times.

Hunter, J. (2020, September 29). Red flags in the forest: B.C.'s giant trees are in danger. The Globe and Mail (BC Edition), A1, A8-A9.

Reference in text example

("All four pillars", 2004)

(Hunter, 2020, p. A8)

(Bushey, 2020)

Comments

  • For a typical citation: Capitalize all major words of the name of the journal itself.
  • In text, if the article does not have an author, use a title (shorten, if necessary). Put the title in quotes.
  • If an article appears on discontinuous pages (e.g. starts on p.D1 and continues on p.D5), give all page numbers, separated by a comma.
  • To cite a "letter to the editor", include the text [Letter to the editor] in square brackets, right after the title of the letter and before the title of the newspaper. There is no period after the title of the letter.
  • When quoting online articles without page numbers, provide: a paragraph number (count if necessary), a heading or section, or a combination of paragraph and heading/section (Section 8.28, p. 273).

Online articles from a news website

For citing articles from online news websites, such as HuffPost or CNN, see Citing websites or online media in our guide.

Reports

For Canadian Government reports see our guide Citing Canadian government documents: APA style.

A document or report found online

See individual author examples and other details on APA's Reports and gray literature or consult the guide directly (Section 10.4, Reports and Gray Literature, pp. 329–331).

Reference list example

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. (2014). Summary for policymakers. In Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Field, C.B., V.R. Barros. D.J. Dokken, K.J. Mach, M.D. Mastrandrea, T.E. Bilir, M. Chatterjee, K.L. Ebi, Y.O. Estrada, R.C. Genova, B. Girma, E.S. Kissel, A.N. Levy, S. MacCracken, P.R. Mastrandrea, and L.L. White (Eds.). Cambridge University Press. https://www.ipcc.ch/site/assets/uploads/2018/02/ar5_wgII_spm_en.pdf

Mathias, D. L., Wheeler, L. F., & Dotson, J. F. (2016). A Probabilistic Asteroid Impact Risk Model (Report No. ARC-E-DAA-TN37003). National Aeronautics and Space Administration. https://ntrs.nasa.gov/citations/20160013841

National Institute of Mental Health. (2014). Eating disorders: About more than food. https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/eating-disorders/eatingdisorders_148810.pdf

Reference in text example

(Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [IPCC], 2014) [first use]
(IPCC, 2014) [subsequent use]
(IPCC, 2014, p. 19) [subsequent use - when quoting]

(Mathias et al., 2016)[first use & subsequent uses)

(National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], 2014) [first use]
(NIMH, 2014) [subsequent use]
(NIMH, 2014, "Binge-eating disorder") [subsequent use - when quoting]

Comments

  • Includes 'gray literature' such as press releases, codes of ethics, grants, policy briefs, issue brief, etc.. Consult APA's Reports and gray literature or the guide directly for these citation examples (Section 10.4, pp. 329-331).
  • Omit the publisher from the source element when the publisher is the same as the author.
  • If present, include report number in parentheses without italics after the report title.