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Citing tables & figures: APA (6th ed.) citation guide

This guide is based on the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed. It provides selected citation examples for common types of sources. For more detailed information please consult a print copy of the style manual available at the SFU Library and at the SFU Bookstore.

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Tables - Single source (Chapter 5, pp. 125-149)

The following example is for a table you have reproduced in your paper exactly as it appears in another source: Same format or state, no reconfiguration or new analysis.

Above the table

Include the word Table with its number next to it (Rule 5.05, p. 127).

Give a title which describes the contents of the table (Rule 5.12, p. 133).

Below the table

Include the word Note. before your citation.

Note. Reprinted from Groceries, hot sauce: Used in hhld/past 6 months, by Kantar Media, retrieved from http://www.pmb.ca Copyright 2010 by Print Management Bureau.

Example

example of a table with number and content description

Comments

  • Tables are characterized by a row-column structure.
  • All tables must be referred to in text.
  • The information that should appear in the Note below the table must include the following: Reprinted from Title of Work, by Author. Retrieved from ... Date of Copyright by Copyright Holder.
  • This work must have a full bibliographic entry in your Reference List even though the information in the Note field uses a lot of the same information.

Tables - compiled from variety of sources (Chapter 5, pp. 125-149)

If you have compiled data from a variety of different sources and put it together to form your own table, you still need to cite where you got the information from.

Above the table

Include the word Table with its number next to it (Rule 5.05, p. 127).

Give a title which describes the contents of the table (Rule 5.12, p. 133).

Below the table

All sources that have been used to create the table's data need to be cited in a Note. below the table. You do not need to give the full bibliographic citation - Author (date) is sufficient.

Note. Data for hot sauce consumption in the United States from Kantar Media (2010), for Canada from Statistics Canada (2011), and for Britain from Euromonitor International (2010b).

Example

example of labelling a table with multiple sources in APA

Comments

  • Tables are characterized by a row-column structure.
  • All tables must be referred to in text.
  • Use the term "Adapted" instead of "Reprinted" if you have altered the table.
  • When using multi-source data you want to describe what data is coming from where. e.g.: Note. Data for hot sauce consumption in the United States from Kantar Media (2010), for Canada from Statistics Canada (2011), and for Britain from Euromonitor International (2010b).
  • ​If you have multiple kinds of data (population figures, consumer information, etc...) in one table you would describe each set of data. e.g.: Note. Population figures for XYZ from Author (date) and for ABC from Author (date). Data for pet ownership for XYZ from Author (date) and for ABC from Author (date).
  • All the sources must have a full bibliographic entry in your Reference List even though the information in the Note field uses a lot of the same information.

Figures - Single source (Chapter 5, pp. 150-167)

Figures include: maps, graphs, charts, drawings, and photographs, or any other illustration or non-textual depiction in printed or electronic resources. (Chapter 5.0, p. 125)

The following example is for citing a figure that you have reprinted directly from another source: same format or state, no reconfiguration or new analysis.

Below the figure

Place the Figure #, caption which describes the contents, then end with the citation information (if reproduced from another source) (Rules 5.23, pp. 159-160).

Example 

Figure 1. Graph of the Sales of Luxury Accessories by Category: Value 2007-2012. Reprinted from Luxury Goods in the United States, by Euromonitor International, January 8 2013, retrieved from http://www.euromonitor.com/ Copyright 2013 by Euromonitor International.

Comments 

  • The figure should not include a title.
  • The information that should appear after the Figure #. below the table must include the following: Title of Work, by Author, date, retrieved from ... Date of Copyright by Copyright Holder.
  • The figure # is as it would appear, numbered consecutively, in your paper - not the figure # assigned to it in its original resource.
  • All figures must be mentioned in text.
  • Each figure must have a full bibliographic entry in your Reference List.
  • If publishing in a journal or as thesis, then before you reproduce any image in your paper it may be necessary to get copyright permission to do so from the original copyright holder and place the wording Reprinted with permission at the end of your citation.

Figures - Compiled from variety of sources (Chapter 5, pp. 150-167)

Figures include: maps, graphs, charts, drawings, and photographs, or any other illustration or nontextual depiction in printed or electronic resources (Chapter 5.0, p. 125).

The following example is for citing a figure that you have created by compiling information from a variety of sources. For example, if you combined data from Passport GMID, Statistics Canada, and a book to create a new chart.

Below the figure

All sources that have been used to create the figure need to be cited in the figure caption - after its number and name. You do not need to give the full bibliographic citation - Author (date) is sufficient.

Figure 1. Sale of luxury goods in the United States, Canada, and Britain by value 2009-2012. Data for the United States from Euromonitor (2013), for Canada from Statistics Canada (2012), and for Britain from Kurtzman (2013).

Example

example of labelling a figure in APA style

Comments

  • The figure should not include a title.
  • The figure # is as it would appear, numbered consecutively, in your paper - not the figure # assigned to it in its original resource.
  • Use the term "Adapted" instead of "Reprinted" if you have altered the figure.
  • When using multi-source data you want to describe what data is coming from where. e.g.: Figure 1. Sale of luxury goods in the United States, Canada, and Britain by value 2009-2012. Data for the United States from Euromonitor (2013), for Canada from Statistics Canada (2012), and for Britain from Kurtzman (2013).
  • All figures must be mentioned in text.
  • All the sources must have a full bibliographic entry in your Reference List.
  • If publishing in a journal or as thesis, then before you reproduce any image in your paper it may be necessary to get copyright permission to do so from the original copyright holder and place the wording Reprinted with permission at the end of your citation.

Images (Chapter 5, pp. 150-151, 165-166)

In-text citation

To cite an image you found online, use the image title or a general description in your text, and then cite it using the first element in the works cited entry and date.

Example

The Dream (Rousseau, 1910) baffled art critics when it debuted, mere months before the artist's death in September of that year. 

    Below the image

    Figure 1. Descriptive caption of image. From Image Title, by Creator's Name, year of creation, Database/URL. Copyright date by Name of copyright holder. Reprinted with permission (if applicable). 

    APA in-text citation example

    The phenomenon of ‘syzygy’ (see Figure 1) in the night sky over Chile.

    Image of the night sky over Chile. Copyright is Y. Beletsky.

    Figure 1. Syzygy (when three or more celestial bodies align in the sky) visible above an observatory in Chile. From Three Planets Dance over La Silla, by Y. Beletsky, 2013, https://www.eso.org/public/images/potw1322a/. Copyright 2013 by Y. Beletsky/ESO.

    Comments

    • In the text, refer to figures by their number (i.e., Figure 1 or Figure 2). Do not refer to figures as "the figure below" or "the figure above."
    • The figure # is as it would appear, numbered consecutively, in your paper - not the figure # assigned to it in its original resource.
    • Number the figures consecutively, beginning with Figure 1.
    • Each figure must have a full bibliographic entry in your Reference List.
    • Place the figure close as possible to the part of text referencing it, unless otherwise instructed by your instructor.
    • Centre the image in the paper.
    • Provide a brief description of the image. The caption should serve as both a title and explanation.

    References list 

    Creator's Last Name, First Initial. (Year of creation). Title of image or description of image. [Type of work]. Retrieved from URL/database.

    Examples

    Beletsky, Y. (2013). Three planets dance over La Silla. [Photograph]. Retrieved from https://www.eso.org/public/images/potw1322a/.

    Irish, J. (2019). Sequoia national park. [Photograph]. Retrieved from https://www.nationalgeographic.com/travel/destinations/north-america/united-states/61-national-parks-photos/#/giant-tree-trail-sequoia-national-park.jpg.

    Drewes, W. (n.d.). Frog and insects (no.200). [Painting]. Retrieved from https://www.si.edu/object/saam_1968.9.50.

    Simon Fraser University [@simonfraseru]. (2019, January 23). Foggy day at the #Burnaby campus. #sfu #sfugram #university [Instagram photograph]. Retrieved from https://www.instagram.com/p/Bs_fr0gA-eH/