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Citing articles: APA (6th ed.) citation guide

 

This guide is based on the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed. It provides selected citation examples for common types of sources. For more detailed information please consult a print copy of the style manual available at the SFU Library and at the SFU Bookstore.

For the best printing results for this guide, use the printer-friendly PDF format.

Journal article – electronic version (6.32, pp. 189-192)

 

General reference form for periodicals with DOI:

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume(issue), page range. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx

General reference form for periodicals found online without DOI:

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume(issue), page range. Retrieved from http://www.homepageURL

Reference in text example:

(Turner, 2007)
(Turner, 2007, p. 292) [when quoting]

(Lynch, 2004, para. 3) [when quoting an article without page numbers]

(Gruenwald, 2009, "Phytic Acid Contributes to") [quoting an article without page or paragraph numbers, using a shortened heading]

Reference list example:

Ledger, W., Wiebinga, C., Anderson, P., Irwin, D., Holman, A., & Lloyd, A. (2009). Costs and outcomes associated with IVF using recombinant FSH. Reproductive BioMedicine Online, 19(3), 337-342. Retrieved from http://www.rbmonline.com/

Turner, J. (2007). Justice and emotions. Social Justice Research, 20(3), 288-311. doi:10.1007/s11211-007-0043-y

Walters, W. (2008). Bordering the sea: Shipping industries and the policing of stowaways. Borderlands E-Journal, 7(3), 1-25. Retrieved from http://www.borderlands.net.au/index.html

Comments:

  • For a typical citation: Capitalize all major words of the name of the journal itself.
  • For electronic versions based on a print source (such as PDF), include page numbers (Rule 6.32, p. 189).
  • The retrieval date is not required unless the source material is likely to change over time.
  • Generally it is not necessary to include information about which database it was retrieved from (Rule 6.32, p. 192).
  • When a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) is available*, include the DOI right after the volume/issue number using the format: “doi:xxxxxxx” (Rule 6.32, p. 191). *NOTE: not all items will have a DOI.
  • Can't find the DOI? DOI Lookup.
  • If there is no DOI assigned, give the URL of the journal’s home page in place of the DOI. You may need to do a quick web search to locate the journal's website address if you found the article in a library database (e.g. Academic Search Premier, ScienceDirect). There is no period at the end of the URL.
  • Many electronic sources do not provide page numbers. In this case, use paragraph numbers preceded by the abbreviation 'para.' (Rule 6.05 pp. 171-172).
  • If a source contains neither page nor paragraph numbers, cite the heading (shorten the heading if it is long) (Rule 6.05 pp. 171-172).

Journal article – print version (6.27-6.30, pp. 184-187)

General reference form for periodicals:
Author, A. A. (year). Title of article. Title of Periodical. volume(issue), page range.

Reference in text example:

(Louth, Hare & Linden, 1998) [first use]
(Louth et al., 1998) [subsequent use]
(Louth et al., 1998, p. 93) [subsequent use - when quoting]

Reference list example:

Louth, S. M., Hare, R. D., & Linden, W. (1998). Psychopathy and alexithymia in female offenders. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 30(2), 91-98.

Comments:

  • For a typical citation: Capitalize all major words of the name of the journal itself.
  • If, and only if, each issue of a journal begins on page 1, give the issue number in parentheses (not italicized) immediately after the volume number (which is italicized). There is no space between the volume and issue number.
  • When a work has two authors, cite both names every time the reference occurs in text (Rule 6.11, p. 174).
  • When a work has three, four or five authors, name all authors the first time the reference occurs; in the first subsequent citation use only the first author, followed by "et al." and a year. If you mention the same work again within one paragraph, omit the year. E.g.:
    • the first time: Smith, Jones, Pearson and Sherwin (1990) found...

    • the second time, as a first citation per paragraph: Smith et al. (1990) found...
    • mentioned again within the same paragraph: Smith et al. found...

  • For six or more authors,  cite only the last name of the first author followed by "et al." and a year (Rule 6.12, p. 175).
  • When a work has two or more authors, use the word and in running text and an ampersand & in parenthetical material, in tables, captions, and in the reference list. E.g.:

as Louth, Hare and Linden (1998) demonstrated ...
as has been shown (Louth, Hare & Linden, 1998) ...

  • In the reference list invert all authors' names; give last names and initials for only up to and including seven authors. When authors number eight or more, include the first six authors’ names, then three ellipses (…), and add the last author’s name (Rule 6.27, p. 184).

Daily newspaper article – print or electronic (6.27-6.32, pp. 184-192)

General reference form for newspaper: see above in Journal article - electronic or -print version

Reference in text example:

("All four pillars", 2004)
(Freeze, 2009)

Reference list example:

All four pillars needed to combat drug scourge. (2004, May 15). The Vancouver Sun, p. C6.

Freeze, C. (2009, October 7). ‘Toronto 18’ leader pleads guilty. The Globe and Mail. Retrieved from http://www.theglobeandmail.com

Comments:

  • For a typical citation: Capitalize all major words of the name of the journal itself.
  • In text, if the article does not have an author, use a title (shorten, if necessary). Put the title in quotes.
  • If an article appears on discontinuous pages (e.g. starts on p.D1 and continues on p.D5), give all page numbers, separated by a comma.
  • To cite a "letter to the editor", include the text [Letter to the editor] in square brackets, right after the title of the letter and before the title of the newspaper. There is no period after the title of the letter.
  • If you retrieved the article from a database (e.g. Canadian Newsstand, CBCA), add the DOI (Digital Object Identifier) at the end using the format: “doi:xxxxxxx” (Rule 6.32, p. 191).
  • Can't find the DOI? DOI Lookup.
  • If there is no DOI assigned, give the URL of the newspaper’s home page in place of the DOI. You may need to do a quick web search to locate the home page if you found the article in a library database (e.g. Canadian Newsstand, PressDisplay). There is no period at the end of the URL.

Magazine article – print or electronic (6.27-6.30, pp. 184-186)

General reference form for magazine: see above in Journal article - electronic or -print version

Reference in text example:

(Morell, 2006)
(Morell, 2006, p. 131) [when quoting]

Reference list example:

Mauro, S. (2009, November). A red tail returns. Aviation History, 20(2). Retrieved from http://www.aviationhistory.org/am_aviation_history_magazine.html

Morell, V. (2006, March). Wolves of Ethiopia. National Geographic, 209, 124-135.

Comments:

  • For a typical citation: Capitalize all major words of the name of the journal itself.
  • Give the date shown on the publication: month for monthlies / month and day for weeklies.
  • If you retrieved the article from a database (e.g. Canadian Reference Centre, CBCA), add the DOI (Digital Object Identifier) at the end using the format: “doi:xxxxxxx” (Rule 6.32, p. 191).
  • Can't find the DOI? DOI Lookup.
  • If there is no DOI assigned, give the URL of the magazine’s home page in place of the DOI. You may need to do a quick web search to locate the home page if you found the article in a library database (e.g. MasterFile Premier, CBCA). There is no period at the end of the URL.