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Citing primary sources: Chicago/Turabian (17th ed.) citation guide

This guide provides examples of citations of commonly-used sources, based on The Chicago Manual of Style (17th ed.), using notes/bibliography style only.

Need more? See Chicago Style Citation Quick Guide for an overview, or find print versions of the Chicago Manual of Style at the SFU Library and SFU Bookstore.

For the best printing results, use the printer-friendly PDF format of this guide.

Letter found in an archive

More guidelines for citing this type of material can be found in section 14.228.

Note

General format:
 
     #. Last name of the sender to Name of the recipient, publication/creation date, Series Title (if provided), Name of Collection (if provided), Name of the archive/depository (if provided), File number (if provided), and/or other identifying information as provided.

     1. Curtis to Mr. W. H. M. Haldane, 1940-1949, The Chung Collection, University of British Columbia Rare Books and Special Collections, Box 197, 197-11-3.

     2. Brown to Donald M. Forbes, August 5, 1864, Pre-1914 collections, The Canadian Letters & Images Project, https://www.canadianletters.ca/content/document-4694?position=24&list=e-uq80kpaft_JeHiESbheGdkbIPqGhSSwm8dtxb5ezw.

Bibliography

General format:
 
Sender's Last name, First name. Title. Name of Collection (if provided). Name of the archive/depository (if provided). File number (if provided), and/or other identifying information as provided. Publication/creation date.

Curtis, M. Louise. Three Letters to Mr. W. H. M. Haldane. The Chung Collection. University of British Columbia Rare Books and Special Collections. Box 197, 197-11-3. 1940-1949.

Brown, J. N. Forbes, Donald M. Letter: 1864 August 5th. Pre-1914 collections. The Canadian Letters & Images Project, https://www.canadianletters.ca/content/document-4694?position=24&list=e-uq80kpaft_JeHiESbheGdkbIPqGhSSwm8dtxb5ezw. August 5, 1864

Oral history

More guidelines for citing this type of material can be found in section 14.211.

Note

General format:
 
     #. Interviewee's First name Last name (identifying information), interview with/interview by/discussion with interviewer's First name Last name, interview Month Day, Year, Location where transcript or recording may be found, URL (if necessary).

     1. Nancy Leone (Japanese Canadian), interview by Kirsten McAllister, July 18, 1990, Japanese Canadian Oral History Collection, Simon Fraser University Library, https://digital.lib.sfu.ca/johc-167/interview-nancy-leone.

Bibliography

General format:
 
Interviewee's Last name, First name. Interview year. (Identifying information). Interview with/interview by/discussion with interviewer's First name Last Name. Interview Month Day. Location where transcript or recording may be found. URL [if necessary).

Leone, Nancy. 1990. (Japanese Canadian). Interview by Kirsten McAllister. July 18. Japanese Canadian Oral History Collection. Simon Fraser University Library. https://digital.lib.sfu.ca/johc-167/interview-nancy-leone.

Paintings, photographs, and sculpture

More guidelines for citing this type of material can be found in section 14.235.

To cite a painting:

Note

General format:
 
     #. Creator's First name Last name, Title of Work, date of creation, medium, Location of work, Name of Collection (if available), URL (if consulted online).

     1. Lui Shou Kwan, Taiwan Landscape—Ali Shan, 1971, ink, pigment on paper, Vancouver Art Gallery.

Bibliography

General format:
 
Creator's Last name, First name. Title of Work. Date of creation. Medium. Location of work. Name of Collection (if available). URL (if consulted online).

Lui, Shou Kwan. Taiwan Landscape—Ali Shan. 1971. Ink, pigment on paper. Vancouver Art Gallery.

To cite a photograph:

Note

General format:
 
     #. Creator's First name Last name, Title of Work, date of creation, medium, Location of work, Name of Collection, URL (if consulted online).

     1. Philip Timms, Chinese Business Damaged by Race Riot, 1907, photograph, Simon Fraser University Library, BC Multicultural Photograph Collection at the Vancouver Public Library, https://digital.lib.sfu.ca/vpl-122/chinese-business-damaged-race-riot.

Bibliography

General format:
 
Creator's Last name, First name. Title of Work. Date of creation. Medium. Location of work. Name of Collection (if available). URL (if consulted online.

Timms, Philip. Chinese Business Damaged by Race Riot. 1907. Photograph. Simon Fraser University Library. BC Multicultural Photograph Collection at the Vancouver Public Library. https://digital.lib.sfu.ca/vpl-122/chinese-business-damaged-race-riot.

To cite a sculpture:

Note

General format:
 
     #. Creator's First name Last name, Title of Work, date of creation, medium, dimensions (if available), Location of work, Name of Collection (if available), URL (if consulted online).

     1. Charles Marega, Lions Gate Bridge Lion Maquette, 1938, plaster, 26 x 11 x 43.5 cm, Museum of Vancouver, http://www.museumofvancouver.ca/collections/object/lions-gate-bridge-lion-maquette.

Bibliography

General format:
 
Creator's Last name, First name. Title of Work. Date of creation. Medium, dimensions (if available). Location of work. Name of Collection (if available). URL (if consulted online).

Marega, Charles. Lions Gate Bridge Lion Maquette. 1938. Plaster, 26 x 11 x 43.5 cm. Museum of Vancouver. http://www.museumofvancouver.ca/collections/object/lions-gate-bridge-lion-maquette.

Newspaper article

More guidelines for citing this type of material can be found in section 14.191.

Note

General format (print):
 
     #. First name Last name, "Article Title," Newspaper Title, Month Day, Year, edition, section.
General format (online):
 
     #. First name Last name, "Article Title," Newspaper Title, Original publication Month Day, Year, URL.

     1. Laurie Goodstein and William Glaberson, "The Well-Marked Roads to Homicidal Rage," New York Times, April 10, 2000. https://www.nytimes.com/2000/04/10/us/the-well-marked-roads-to-homicidal-rage.html

     2. Richard Spencer, "Panda Flees Roof to Roof in China," Vancouver Sun, July 19, 2005, A9.

Bibliography

General format (print):
 
Last name, First name. "Article Title." Newspaper Title, Month Day, Year, section (for online sources, replace section with URL).

Goodstein, Laurie and William Glaberson. "The Well-Marked Roads to Homicidal Rage." New York Times, April 10, 2000. https://www.nytimes.com/2000/04/10/us/the-well-marked-roads-to-homicidal-rage.html

Spencer, Richard. "Panda Flees Roof to Roof in China." Vancouver Sun, July 19, 2005, A9.

Missing information

In addition to crediting the ideas and work of others, the purpose of citation is to enable your reader to identify or find the sources you consulted.  In some situations, you may consult primary material that is missing some of the standard means of identification, ie author, title, date, etc.  Use the full Chicago Manual of Style  and adapt the examples above in these cases, and bear in mind your purpose when crafting these citations.

General guidelines

No place of publication (14.132): Use the abbreviation n.p. (or N.p. if following a period) before the publisher’s name, if the place of publication is unknown. A question mark may be given in brackets, if the place can be surmised.

No date of publication (14.145): If the publication date of a printed work cannot be ascertained,  use the abbreviation n.d. in the publication details. A guessed-at date may either be substituted in brackets or added.

Unsigned Newspaper articles (14.199): Unsigned newspaper articles or features are best dealt with in text or notes. Use the title of the newspaper stands in place of the author, if a bibliography entry should be needed.

Pamphlets, reports and the like (14.220): Provide sufficient information to identify the document even when data on author and publisher may not fit the normal pattern.

For example, here is a citation for an unattributed 1980s concert poster viewed online:

Note

     1. Curious George and Head First, “Curious George with Head First Sat. Jan. 27,” (1988), poster, Vancouver Punk Rock Collection, Simon Fraser University Library, https://digital.lib.sfu.ca/vanpunk-609/curious-george-head-first-sat-jan-27

Bibliography

Curious George and Head First. “Curious George with Head First Sat. Jan. 27.” (1988). Poster. Vancouver Punk Rock Collection. Simon Fraser University Library. https://digital.lib.sfu.ca/vanpunk-609/curious-george-head-first-sat-jan-27