On this page
This guide provides examples of citations of commonly-used sources, based on The Chicago Manual of Style (17th ed.), using notes/bibliography style only.
For the best printing results, use the printer-friendly PDF format of this guide.
More guidelines for citing this type of material can be found in section 14.75.
1. Carol Shields, The Stone Diaries (Toronto: Random House of Canada, 1993), 342.
Shields, Carol. The Stone Diaries. Toronto: Random House of Canada, 1993.
- In a note, state the author's full name, starting with the author's first name (e.g. Carol Shields).
- In a bibliography, state the author's name starting with the author's last name (e.g. Shields, Carol).
- The publisher's name may be slightly abbreviated by omitting The, Inc., Ltd., Co., etc. (14.133 - 14.135).
- If a work contains more than one place of publication, only include the first place listed. If the place of publication is not well known or could be confused with another place with the same name (e.g. Cambridge), then add the province or state abbreviation in the two-letter postal code format without periods separating the letters (e.g. Cambridge, MA) (14.129, 10.28).
More guidelines for citing this type of material can be found in section 14.76.
1. Sandra M. Gilbert and Susan Gubar, The Madwoman in the Attic: The Woman Writer and the Nineteenth-Century Literary Imagination, 2nd ed. (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2000), 103.
Gilbert, Sandra M., and Susan Gubar. The Madwoman in the Attic: The Woman Writer and the Nineteenth-Century Literary Imagination. 2nd ed. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2000.
- In the bibliography, if two authors are listed, invert the name of the first author and add a comma with "and" proceeding the second author's name.
- Spell out "and" in letters - do not use an ampersand "&" between the first and second authors' names.
- If the work you are citing is an edition other than the first, include the edition number after the title (14.114).
Three or more authors
More guidelines for citing this type of material can be found in section 14.76.
1. Mitchell L. Eisen et al. eds., Memory and Suggestibility in the Forensic Interview (Mahwa, NJ: L. Erlbaum Associates, 2002), 65.
Eisen, Mitchell L., Jodi A. Quas, and Gail S. Goodman, eds. Memory and Suggestibility in the Forensic Interview.Mahwa, NJ: L. Erlbaum Associates, 2002.
- For books with more than three, and less than ten authors, all names should be fully cited in the bibliography.
- In a note, only the first author's name needs to be fully cited. The rest of the names can be replaced by the phrase "et al." See example above.
- For works with more than ten authors, only the first seven need to be fully cited in the bibliography; the rest of the names can be replaced by the phrase "et al."
Organization as author
More guidelines for citing this type of material can be found in section 14.84.
1. Institute of Medicine (U.S.), Sustaining Global Surveillance and Response to Zoonotic Diseases (Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press, 2009), 110.
Institute of Medicine (U.S.). Sustaining Global Surveillance and Response to Zoonotic Diseases. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press, 2009.
- An organization as author may be an organization, association, corporation, committee, city, etc. There is no personal author's name on the title page.
- Provide the organization as author in the bibliography even if the organization is also the publisher.
Editors, translators, and/or compilers
In place of author
1. Marcia McClintock Folsom, ed., Approaches to Teaching Austen's "Emma." (New York: Modern Language Association of America, 2004), 135.
Folsom, Marcia McClintock, ed. Approaches to Teaching Austen's "Emma." New York: Modern Language Association of America, 2004.
- When books have editors, translators, or compilers, the following abbreviations are used:
- For editions of books other than the first, the edition number (or description) and the abbreviation "ed." are placed after the book's title in all notes and bibliographic citations (14.103 - 14.105). For example:
- If there is no author on the title page of a work, list the name(s) of the editor (ed. or eds.), compiler (comp. or comps.), or translator (trans.).
- The abbreviated forms appear in notes as well as in the bibliography.
In addition to author
More guidelines for citing this type of material can be found in section 14.104.
1. Clara Schumann, The Complete Correspondence of Clara and Robert Schumann, ed. Eva Weissweiler, trans. Hildegard Fritsch (New York: P. Lang, 1994), 189.
Schumann, Clara. The Complete Correspondence of Clara and Robert Schumann. Edited by Eva Weissweiler. Translated by Hildegard Fritsch. New York: P. Lang, 1994.
- The author's name appears first. In addition, the name(s) of the editor(s), compiler(s) or translator(s) appear after the title.
- In the bibliography, a spelled-out version is used: "edited by", "translated by", "compiled by". However, the abbreviations are used in notes.
- In notes, use the singular abbreviation ("ed." and "comp.") even if there is more than one editor or compiler.
No author, editor, translator, or compiler
More guidelines for citing this type of material can be found in section 14.79.
1. Holy Bible: Contemporary English Version (New York: American Bible Society, 1995), 5.
Holy Bible: Contemporary English Version. New York: American Bible Society, 1995.
- If a work does not have a known author or editor, begin the note or bibliography entry with the title, unless the author is listed as "Anonymous."
Electronic or online
1. Kylie Mirmohamadi, The Digital Afterlives of Jane Austen: Janeites at the Keyboard (Basingstoke: Palgrave Pilot, 2014), 55, https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137401335.
2. Ta-Nehisi Coates, Between the World and Me (New York: Spiegl and Grau, 2015), Kindle.
3. Stephen Quirke, Blackwell Ancient Religions: Exploring Religion in Ancient Egypt (Somerset, GB: Wiley-Blackwell, 2014), http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/sfu-ebooks/detail.action?docID=1832720.
Coates, Ta-Nehisi. Between the World and Me. New York: Spiegl and Grau, 2015. Kindle.
Mirmohamadi, Kylie. The Digital Afterlives of Jane Austen: Janeites at the Keyboard. Basingstoke: Palgrave Pivot, 2014. https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137401335.
Quirke, Stephen. Blackwell Ancient Religions: Exploring Religion in Ancient Egypt. Somerset, GB: Wiley-Blackwell, 2014. http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/sfu-ebooks/detail.action?docID=1832720.
- Electronic and online books follow the same format as print books with some additional information at the very end of the citation.
- If you downloaded an electronic book, add the media type at the end of the citation (e.g. Kindle edition, PDF ebook, CD-ROM). (14.161-14.162)
- If you consulted a book online or through a database (e.g. Ebook Central, Google Books, Wiley), add the DOI (Digital Object Identifier) where available at the end using the format: https://doi:xxxxxxx. If there is no DOI, include the URL. (14.161)
- If there are no page numbers, include a section title or a chapter or other number in place of page names (eg. chap. 10). (14.160)
- You are not required to include the date of access, but you may include one if preferred by your discipline. Include it after the year of publication in the following format: Accessed January 1, 2017. (14.12).
Chapter -- in an anthology or edited book
More guidelines for citing this type of material can be found in section 14.107.
1. Leonie Arthur, "Popular Culture: Views of Parents and Educators," in Popular Culture, New Media, and Digital Literacy in Early Childhood, ed. by Jackie Marsh (London: RoutledgeFalmer, 2005), 173.
Arthur, Leonie. "Popular Culture: Views of Parents and Educator." In Popular Culture, New Media, and Digital Literacy in Early Childhood, ed. Jackie Marsh, 165-82. London: RoutledgeFalmer, 2005.
- Start with the author(s) of the chapter. Continue with the chapter title in quotation marks, followed by in (in a note) or In (in the bibliography), followed by the title of the whole book and the editor(s).
- Two editors in notes: After the edited book title, type in: eds. followed by the names (e.g. eds. Anne Carr and Mary Stewart).
- Two editors in the bibliography: After the edited book title, type in: edited by Anne Carr and Mary Stewart.