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"Imitation is the most sincere form of flattery." As true as this may be, when it comes to academic research and writing, you must always give credit when you use someone else's words or ideas, and provide the information for where you got it. Giving credit and providing this information is called citing, and citing properly is one part of academic integrity or academic honesty.
Learn about academic integrity and when and how it is acceptable to use other people's ideas with this short and very funny video:
There are a number of different ways to cite your sources. Although formatting rules can vary, all citations consist of:
- An "in-text citation." This is a very quick note of where you got your information that is inserted in your paper at the point where you've used someone else's idea.
- A reference list. This is the section at the very end of your paper where you give detailed information on how to find the sources you've used. Other words for Reference List (APA citation style) that mean the same thing are Works Cited (MLA citation style) and Bibliography.
No matter which style you use, all citations are made up of four elements. The order and appearance of these elements may look different from style to style, but all citations must include this information:
- Who (Author or authors)
- When (Year of publication)
- What (Title)
- Where (Source - for books this is the publisher, and for journal articles this is the journal title and information such as volume, issue, page numbers, and DOI)
To find the information you need for your citation, look at the publication information (book) or the abstract page (article).
A DOI is a unique number assigned to articles in electronic databases. It is a permanent identifying number, and so is a more reliable way to tell your reader where you found the article than a URL or a database name, which may change over time or be hidden behind a proxy server. You can use a DOI resolver to track down known articles for which you have a DOI number. Just copy and paste the DOI to be directed to the article.
Different departments often require different citation styles for research papers. Always check with your instructor which style they require. Here are some of the most common citation styles, and links to other citation and style guides.
Plagiarism is the result of not citing correctly. Whether it happens accidentally or on purpose, plagiarism means taking credit for someone else's ideas. Plagiarism is an example of academic dishonesty. There are often serious consequences for academic dishonesty. It is up to you to learn how to recognize plagiarism and to make sure you avoid it.
SFU Library has created an interactive tutorial to help you learn about plagiarism.
You can also take this tutorial on Academic Integrity to learn about academic dishonesty and why academic integrity is important.
As FIC students, you have a number of resources and workshops to help you with your academic writing, as well as develop your study and research skills.
The Student Learning Commons provides workshops and other resources. See:
At this time, the Student Learning Commons does not offer personalized tutoring or consultation to FIC students, but there are other options for finding a tutor at SFU.
SFU Library also has style guides, handbooks, and exercises for you to use and borrow:
You can also check out events and workshops available to you as FIC students, including the University Writing Skills tutorial.