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  • Simon Fraser University instructors own copyright in their lectures, and students own copyright in their presentations and assignments, as per SFU Policy R30.03 Intellectual Property Policy, but you may not own the copyright to all of the content within your lecture or presentation. Many educational uses of copyright protected materials are allowed for through fair dealing and educational exceptions to the Copyright Act. However, what you can display in the classroom may be different from what you can distribute to students.

    It is important that access to the material is limited to the students enrolled in the course and that the copying limits of the Application of Fair Dealing under Policy R30.04 are respected if the slides will be handed out rather than just displayed in the classroom. If you need to make use of a greater volume of material than that which is permitted through the fair dealing policy, you must:

    1. Remove copyright materials from the slides before creating the handouts,

    2. Request that SFU’s Copyright Officer evaluate whether a particular instance of copying or communication of a copyright-protected work is permitted under the fair dealing exception, or

    3. Seek express written permission from the copyright holder to copy and communicate that content.  Be sure to keep a copy of any permission you receive.

  • Where do you look for citation information?

    There are two places to get the information you need for a book citation: the title page, and the reverse side of the title page (sometimes called the verso).

    It is important to check the guidelines for the citation style your instructor requires for your assignment. Each citation style (such as APA or MLA) will have different formatting and style rules that must to be followed. 
     
    Ebooks may have different requirements -- we recommend you check your citation style to be sure.

    For the best printing results for this guide, use the printer-friendly PDF format

    Cover

    The book cover will have some, but not all, of the information you need for a citation.

    Cover of Cory Doctorow's book Information Doesn't Want to be Free

    Title page

    A title page will generally have the title, subtitle, author, and publisher. Some title pages will also include publisher location and edition information. 

    Title page of Cory Doctorow's book Information Doesn't Want to be Free

    Title Information doesn't want to be free

    Subtitle Laws for the internet age

    Author Cory Doctorow

    Publisher McSweeney's

    Publisher location San Francisco

    Reverse side of title page (verso)

    The reverse side of the title page will contain the rest of the information you need -- plus more! Typically what is needed for a citation is the date, author, publisher, and publisher location.

    The reverse side of the title page of Cory Doctorow's book Information Doesn't Want to be Free

    Date 2014

    Publisher McSweeney's

    Publisher location San Francisco

     

    Question: How do you cite when there is more than one publisher location or date?
     
    Answer: It depends. Check your citation style to be sure. 

    More help

    See also:

    What information do I need to cite a journal article?

    What information do I need to cite a webpage?

    [[fa question-circle]] Questions? Ask us!

  • Journal articles (also called academic or scholarly or peer-reviewed articles) can be found either online or in print. For help finding journal articles using the Library Catalogue and databases see our guide.

    Unsure what peer reviewed means? See What is a peer-reviewed journal

    It is important to check the guidelines for the citation style your instructor requires for your assignment. Each citation style (such as APA or MLA) will have different formatting and style rules that must to be followed. 

    Electronic article

    When you find an article online, using resources such as the Library Catalogue or databases subscribed to by SFU, you are using an electronic journal article.

    Typically when citing an article you need the following: author, title of article, date of publication, title of publication, volume, issue, page numbers, and either a DOI or URL.

    Journal article abstract as shown in a EBSCO database results list: "Consistencies far beyond chance: an analysis of learner preconceptions of reflective symmetry."

    Author(s) Michael Kainsose, Marc Schafe

    Article title Consistencies far beyond chance: an analysis of learner perceptions of reflective symmetry

    Date 2013

    Journal title South African Journal of Education

    Volume 33

    Issue 2

    Page numbers 1-17

    DOI/URL no DOI for this article

    DOI stands for "Digital Object Identifier" and is a permanent string of characters given to articles when linking them online.
     
    Don't see a DOI? That's okay, not all articles have them -- especially older articles. Check your citation guide to find out what information to provide when there is no DOI.

    [[fa print ]]To print this guide: For the best printing results for the electronic article guide, use the printer-friendly PDF format.

    Print article

    Typically when citing an article you need the following: author, title of article, date of publication, title of publication, volume, issue, and page numbers.

    Image of a print journal article, including article title, author, abstract, journal title, and other identifying information.

    Author(s) Kathleen Azali, Andreiw Budiman

    Article title Design it yourself surabaya: Reflective notes on designing a festival

    Date July 2016

    Journal title PORTAL Journal of Multidisciplinary International Studies

    Volume 13

    Issue 2

    Page numbers 1-9

    DOI/URL http://dx/doi.org/10.5130/portal.v13i2.5024 

    [[fa print ]] To print this guide:  For the best printing results for the print article guide, use the printer-friendly PDF format.

    More help

    See also:

    What information do I need to cite a book?

    What information do I need to cite a webpage?

    [[fa question-circle]] Questions? Ask us!

  • You can find many types of sources online, including websites, webpages (parts of websites), blog posts, articles, and reports or other files (often PDFs) downloaded from websites. Depending on the type of source you use, you may have to follow different formatting guidelines. 

    It is important to check the guidelines for the citation style your instructor requires for your assignment. Each citation style (such as APA or MLA) will have different formatting and style rules that must to be followed. 

    This page will help you to identify elements of a webpage for writing a citation.

    For the best printing results for this guide, use the printer-friendly PDF format.

    Typically you need an author, publication date, title of the article, name of the website organization (i.e. who owns it), and a URL for a webpage citation.

    Elements of the webpage to use in your citation

    New Horizons' Next Target Just Got a Lot More Interesting: NASA webpage with image of space objects.

    Author:  No author information is given

    Article title: New horizons' next target just got a lot more interesting

    Date: August 3, 2017

    Organization: NASA

    Webpage URL: https://www.nasa.gov/feature/new-horizons-next-target-just-got-a-lot-more-interesting

    Website URL: www.nasa.gov

    Sometimes pieces of the information may be missing, such as author or date.
     
    Authors may also use screen names (noms de plume or pseudonyms), be listed as anonymous, or the content may have been created by the organization.
     
    Check your citation style for what to do when there is no author or no date given. 

    More help

    See also:

    What information do I need to cite a book?

    What information do I need to cite a journal article?

    [[fa question-circle]] Questions? Ask us!

  • Under section 29.21 of Canada's Copyright Act, an individual may "use an existing work... or copy of one... in the creation of a new work or other subject-matter in which copyright subsists." This is colloquially known as the "mashup provision," as it was designed to allow things like recording a home video with music playing in the background, or creating a collage of photos or video clips, and uploading these resulting works online.

    There are a number of conditions to this provision. First, the resulting new work must be created "solely for non-commercial purposes." This means you can't use this provision to create advertising or sell something. You must also cite the source, if it is "reasonable" to include this in your resulting work. You must be reasonably sure that the work you are using was not an infringing (illegal) copy of the original work (e.g. a pirated song or film). Finally, your resulting work must not negatively affect the market (i.e. serve as a substitute) for the original work.

    For example, you might want to create a collage of photos and video clips of SFU events, with music in the background. This must not serve as an advertisement (whether for fundraising, to attract enrollment, or to sell anything relating to SFU or tickets to an event). You should attribute the creators of the photos, videos and music in your credits. Your photos, videos and music must come from legitimate sources. And your creation must be an original work, not a replacement for any of the original videos or music you have used.

    SFU Archives is a great source for photos, footage and other material to work from.

  • A bibliography is a list of information sources (books, articles, web pages, etc.) on a given subject or person. An annotated bibliography is one which provides critical or descriptive notes about the works it lists.
  • How call numbers work

    All print or paper copies of books in the library are assigned a call number, usually found on the book spine. The call number represents what the book is about and acts like the book's address on the library's shelves or stacks. Because books on the shelves are arranged in call number order, you will find books on similar subjects shelved near each other.

    At the SFU Library, we use the Library of Congress (LC) classification system. LC call numbers are made up of letters and numbers and look something like this:

    PR 8923 W6 L36 1990 c.3

    Read the call number from left to right. The first part of a call number, PR 8923, consists of a combination of one or two letters and a number that indicates a specific subject area.

    The next part, W6 L36, identifies a specific title within the range of books on that topic, 1990 is the date of publication, and c.3 indicates it is the third copy in the library.

    Spines of library books on a shelf, with an arrow pointing to the call number section of one.

    Finding your book once you have a call number

    Once you have a call number for your book (or other item), you can use the floor plan link in the book's Catalogue record to see where the book can be found within the library.

    Or check these SFU Library maps to find the location.

    Steps for finding your call number on the shelf

    1. Start with finding the first letter of your call number. For the example above, call numbers starting with P are on the 5th floor of the W.A.C. Bennett Library in Burnaby.
    2. Call numbers beginning with a single letter come before call numbers with a second letter, e.g.: P before PA, then PB, PC, and so on until PR.
    3. Once you are in the correct letter area (in this example, PR), the books are in number order, e.g.: PR 8923 comes after PR 90 and before PR 9000.
    4. The next part of the call number is read like decimals, e.g.: PR 8914 J46 1992 comes before PR 8914 J6
    5. Many books also include the year of publication. In this example it is 1990. This will help you find the right edition, if there is more than one.

    Using call numbers to browse the shelves

    To browse a general subject area, you can start by finding the call number for a book or books on your subject, then looking at the shelves nearby.

    Or you can use tools like the Library of Congress Classification Outline to get more specific subclassifications to browse, such as: BC for Logic; MT for Music Instruction and Study;  QP for Physiology. (Note that these are still large categories, and depending on the size of the library where you are searching, you may be overwhelmed with results!)

    Library of Congress (LC) classification system and call numbers (subject classifications)

    The Library of Congress classification system divides subjects into 21 very broad categories:

    A - General Works
    B - Philosophy, Psychology, Religion
    C – History - Civilization
    D - History – General (not U.S.)
    E - U.S. History
    F - U.S. Local History and Latin American History
    G - Geography, Anthropology, Recreation
    H - Social Sciences
    J - Political Science
    K - Law
    L - Education
    M - Music
    N - Fine Arts
    P - Language & Literature
    Q - Science
    R - Medicine
    S - Agriculture
    T - Technology
    U - Military Science
    V - Naval Science
    Z - Information Science

  • A citation is a reference to a source. The citation gives a concise description of the book, article, web page, etc., and includes the author, title, name of periodical and volume (for articles), publisher, date, and other identifying information.

    For help finding an article from a citation, see From Citation to Article.

    For help citing your sources, see the Library's Writing and Style Guides

  • The copyright date is the legal date when the right to reproduce and sell a work was registered.
  • A course pack is a bound compilation of works from more than one source. The Bookstore can assist you in producing a course pack. Please contact the Custom Course Materials Coordinator for more information on how to create a course pack as well as important deadlines. 

    Note: There are some special cases, such as reproducing out-of-print books or rare/fragile materials, which may take longer for copyright clearance. When you place your order, the Custom Course Materials Coordinator can assess what copyright clearance may be required. Obtaining clearances for such materials can take quite some time (an average of 6-8 weeks or more) so ensure you submit your requests early to be assured that your course pack will be available in time. You will need to comply with any deadlines as set out by the Bookstore.

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