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Works by T.S. Eliot, Malcolm X, Dorothea Lange, and other creators entering the public domain in Canada in 2016

In Canada, copyright protection for most types of works lasts for 50 years after the end of the year in which the creator dies. When copyright expires, those works enter the public domain, meaning there are no longer any restrictions on their use. Please note that other countries may have different lengths of copyright protection (e.g. the United States), so works in the public domain in Canada will not necessarily be unrestricted to freely use elsewhere.

Works created by authors, artists and other types of creators who died in 1965 entered the public domain in Canada on January 1 of this year. These include:

  • T.S. Eliot
  • Winston Churchill
  • Nat King Cole
  • Malcolm X
  • Adlai Stevenson
  • Shirley Jackson
  • Le Corbusier
  • Dorothea Lange
  • W. Somerset Maugham
  • ​Martin Buber

Dorothea Lange's photo of grandfather and grandson of Japanese origin at Manzanar Relocation CenterPhoto of Le Corbusier's Église Saint-Pierre de FirminyPhoto of Malcolm X smiling

For more information about copyright and the public domain, see the FAQ "What is the "public domain" and can I copy works from the public domain freely?" and the Copyright at SFU website. For more information about authors and creators whose works enter the public domain in Canada this year, see this Wikilivres page and this Public Domain Review page.

Contact the Copyright Office at with any questions about copyright, including the public domain.