Sometimes, but not necessarily. The author or creator holds copyright in their work as soon as it is created, unless and until they assign that right to another entity. Publishing a work and creating a work during the course of employment are two situations in which copyright is often transferred.
In most cases, the publisher holds copyright of a published work unless the publisher works with an open access model, or the author has exercised the option to retain some rights through an author's addendum, by self-publishing, or through other licensing arrangements such as a Creative Commons license.
For works created during the course of employment, the Copyright Act specifies that, in the absence of an agreement to the contrary (i.e. unless specified in the employment contract), the employer owns copyright. At SFU, however, generally employees retain copyright ownership in their research and teaching materials (see here for details).