Citation Guide: Chicago/Turabian (16th ed.)
- Online version of The Chicago Manual of Style
- Print copies are available at SFU Library, Call number: Z 253 U69 2010. Copies may also be purchased from the SFU Bookstore.
- For the best printing results, use the printer-friendly PDF format of this guide.
Want help keeping track of your references/citations and formatting your bibliographies? Consider using RefWorks - free for all current SFU students, faculty and staff.
How to cite:
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Secondary sources | Custom Courseware | Using RefWorks
Canadian Government documents
General Notes on Chicago Style
- Chicago style is sometimes referred to as Turabian style, which is a modified version of Chicago style, and which is outlined in A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations by Kate L. Turabian. Copies of this style manual (7th ed.) are also available at SFU Library.
Chicago style outlines two distinct citation styles, and this guide covers only the Humanities style (14.2):
- Notes/bibliography style, also known as "Humanities style." Sources are cited through footnotes (or endnotes) and a bibliography
- Author/date style, also known as "Scientific/Social Sciences style." Sources are cited through parenthetical author/date references in the text and a reference list
It is recommended practice, but not absolutely necessary, to cite your sources in both the notes and the bibliography. If you choose not to include a bibliography in your paper or choose to create only a partial list of references, you must provide full details of the sources you cited in your notes. (The first time you mention a work in the notes, you must provide full publication details. All subsequent notes of the same work can be written in short form.) If, on the other hand, your bibliography includes all sources cited in the notes, you need not provide full publication details in the notes since a reader can consult the bibliography (14.14).
- Make sure to consult your instructor if you are contemplating not including a bibliography in your paper. The practice of including both notes and a bibliography is still common practice amongst humanities scholars.
- Your paper must be double-spaced. It is conventional to single-space footnotes and bibliographies, leaving a blank line between entries.
- Every page of the paper must be assigned a page number, including blank pages, appendices, and bibliography. Arabic numerals are centered or flush right at the top of the page.
You need to cite and document any sources that you have consulted, even if you presented the ideas from these sources in your own words (13.1 - 13.6). You need to cite:
- to identify other people's ideas and information used within your essay
- to inform the reader of your paper where they should look if they want to find the same sources
A citation must appear in two places in your essay (14.14):
- in the notes (footnotes or endnotes)
- in the bibliography (at the end of your paper)
To introduce other people's ideas in text, use the following examples:
Richardson argues, refers to, explains, hypothesizes, compares, concludes;
As Littlewood and Sherwin demonstrated, proved, ... etc.
- Webster's Third New International Dictionary and Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary are the standard spelling references for all Chicago citations (7.1).
- You are responsible for the accuracy of all information in your bibliography (13.6).
In Chicago notes/bibliography style, footnotes or endnotes are used to cite quotes, paraphrases, and other in-text references (13.3).
- Footnotes are numbered citations listed at the bottom of each page in the research paper (14.14, 14.39)
- Endnotes are numbered citations listed on a single page at the end of the research paper (14.14, 14.40)
To cite a source, a small superscript (raised) number is placed after each in-text reference (14.19). Throughout the paper, these in-text references are numbered in sequential order (14.20). For example:
Mooney found that "domestic violence has, since the 1970s, been increasingly recognized as a social problem." 1
- Each numbered reference then corresponds to a numbered citation in the footnote or endnote that provides author, date, and publication information for each source (14.14). The numbers in the notes are full size, not raised, and followed by a period. The older style is to use superscript numerals, like footnote numbers in the text. They are placed at the beginning of a footnote, without punctuation.
- Citations in notes are single-spaced (unless otherwise instructed), but there is a double space between entries. The first line is indented.
The first in-text reference to a given source must be cited in full with the name of the author/s, title of the work, place of publication, name of the publisher, and page number/s of the cited reference (14.14, 14.18). For example:
Subsequent notes for sources that have already been cited may be shortened to the author's last name, abbreviated title, and the appropriate page reference (14.14, 14.18, 14.24 - 14.31). For example:
- Immediately following notes that refer to the same source may be shortened even further to "ibid." (short for 'ibidem' - the Latin word for "in the same place") and the appropriate page reference (14.29). For example:
- The list of sources at the end of the paper or at the end of the chapter is called the bibliography. This list must include all references cited in the text of your paper (14.56 - 14.57).
- In the bibliography, entries are listed in alphabetical order according to the authors' last names. If no author or editor is provided, the work's title may be used instead (14.57).
- Entries are double-spaced , but single-spacing is used within each entry. The second and subsequent lines are indented.
- When the bibliography includes multiple entries by the same author listed together, a 3-em dash may be used to replace the author's name after the first entry (14.63 - 14.57). For example:
- For more information about how to format your bibliography, see sections 14.56 - 14.67.
When books have editors, translators, or compilers, the following abbreviations are used (10.43, 14.72 - 14.92):
- one editor - ed.
- two or more editors - eds.
- translators - trans.
- one compiler - comp.
- two or more compilers - comps.
For editions of books other than the first, the edition number (or description) and the abbreviation "ed." are placed after the book's title in all notes and bibliographic citations (14.118 - 14.120). For example:
- second edition - 2nd ed.
- revised edition - rev. ed.
How to cite...
|Book - Single Author (14.75)|
"[T]he moment of death occurs while we’re still alive. Life marches right up to the wall of that final darkness, one extreme state of being butting against the other. Not even a breath separates them. Not even a blink of the eye."1
|Book - No Author, Editor, Translator, or Compiler (14.79)|
Journal Article - Online Version (14.4 - 14.12, 14.184 - 14.185)
Retrieved from a database (e.g. JSTOR, PsycInfo, Academic Search Elite)
|Additional Web Resources|