Citation Guide: APA (6th ed., 2010)

 

This guide is based on the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed. It provides selected citation examples for common types of sources. For more detailed information please consult a print copy of the style manual.

Keep track of your document references/citations and format your reference lists easily with RefWorks.

 

General notes on APA style: Reference in text | Reference list | Additional Web sources

How to cite:
Books & E-books | Chapters | Encyclopedias & Dictionaries
Audiovisual media | Websites
Print articles | Electronic articles | Magazine articles | Newspaper articles | DOI Lookup
Secondary sources | Conference proceedings
Personal communication, Interviews, Class notes | Custom courseware
ERIC documents | Tables & Figures
Business sources | Canadian Government documents
Twitter & Facebook

Sample paper | APA Style blog (citation examples and explanations)


 

General Notes on APA Style

  • APA requires that the entire paper be double-spaced, including all the lines in the reference list.
  • Number all pages consecutively, beginning with the title page, in Arabic numerals (e.g., 4, not IV) in the upper right-hand corner (Rule 8.03, p. 230). You need to cite and document any sources that you have consulted, even if you presented the ideas from these sources in your own words. You need to cite:
    • to identify other people's ideas and information used within your essay.
    • to inform the reader of your paper where they should look if they want to find the same sources.
  • A citation must appear in two places in your essay:
    • in the body of your text ("in-text citations").
    • in the reference list (at the end of your paper).
  • To introduce other people's ideas in text, use the following examples:
    Richardson argues, refers to, explains, hypothesizes, compares, concludes;
    As Littlewood and Sherwin demonstrated, proved, ... etc.
  • Spelling. Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary is the standard spelling reference for APA journals and books (Rule 4.12, p. 96).

Reference in Text

  • Capitalize all major words in titles of books and articles within the body of the paper (Rule 4.15, p.101). E.g.
    • In his book, Greek Political Thought (2006), Balot argues that...
    • The criticism of the article, "The Politics of Paraliterary Criticism"...
       
    • NOTE: In reference lists, however, capitalize only the first word of the title and of the subtitle (after a colon or em dash) and proper nouns.
  • When quoting from print sources or online articles, give the author, year, and page number in parentheses (Rule 6.03, pp.170-171). For example:
    Mooney (2000) found that ..."direct_quotation" (p. 276).
    "Direct_quotation"... (Walker, 2000, p. 135).
  • If the quotation is over 40 words, you must start the quotation on a new line, indent the quotation about ½ an inch, and omit the quotation marks (Rule 6.03, p. 171).
    Prince Edward Island is a curved slice of land from three to thirty-five miles wide and about one hundred and twenty miles long, lying along the southern rim of the Gulf of St. Lawrence and separated from the mainland of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia by the narrow waters of Northumberland Strait. (Ives, 1999, p. 1)
  • When paraphrasing from a source, or when referring to an idea contained in another work, you are encouraged to provide a page number (Rule 6.04 p. 171).
  • When citing the same author multiple times in a paragraph, see Citing Paraphrased Work in APA Style from the APA Style Blog.
  • Many electronic sources do not provide page numbers. In this case, use paragraph numbers preceded by the abbreviation 'para.' (Rule 6.05 pp. 171-172). For example:
    (Johnson, 2003, para. 5).
  • If a source contains neither page nor paragraph numbers, cite the heading (shorten the heading if it is long) (Rule 6.05 pp. 171-172).
  • If there is no date of publication, use the abbreviation (n.d.).
  • List two or more works by different authors who are cited within the same parentheses in alphabetical order by the first author's surname, e.g. (Anderson, 1980; Fowers & Powell, 1993; Simonetti, 1998) (Rule 6.16 p. 177).

Reference List

  • In APA, the list of sources at the end of the paper (bibliography) is called the reference list. The reference list must include all references cited in the text of your paper. 
  • Order of references in the reference list is alphabetical, by the last name of the first author (Rule 6.25, p. 181) or, if author is not available - by title.
  • Alphabetize letter by letter. "Nothing precedes something". 'Brown, J. R.' comes before 'Browning, A. F.'.
  • For the author's first name use only initials: 'Smith, J.', not 'Smith, Jennifer'.
  • For several works by the same author cite them in your reference list  by year of publication with the earliest first - Smith, A. (1999) ... Smith, A. (2002)
  • Second and subsequent lines of each entry are indented 5-7 spaces.
  • Double-space between all lines of your work, including references. 
  • When citing books (not periodicals), capitalize only the first word of the title and of the subtitle (i.e. the first word after a colon or a dash) and proper nouns (Rule 6.29, p. 185).
  • If more than one city of publication is listed in the book you are citing, use the first one listed.
  • If there is no date of publication, use the abbreviation (n.d.).
  • See Rules 6.22 to 6.32 of the APA Publication Manual for more information on the preparation of the reference list.

 


How to Cite...

Back to topBook - No Author or Editor (6.15, pp. 176-177)
Reference in Text (Geological field trips in southern British Columbia, 2003)
According to the definition [....] (Geological field trips in southern British Columbia, 2003, p.5) (when quoting).
Reference List

Geological field trips in southern British Columbia. (2003). Vancouver, BC: Geological Association of Canada,

Cordilleran Section.

Comments
  • When a work has no author, cite in text the first few words of the reference list entry (usually the title) and the year.
  • Within the body of the paper italicize the title of a book, brochure, or report and capitalize all major words in titles.
    • In his book Greek Political Thought, Balot (2006) argued that [...].
  • In text, you may use a few words of the title if the title is too long.
Back to topBook - Print or Electronic, One Author  (6.11, pp. 174-175)
Reference in Text (Walker, 2000)
(Walker, 2000, p. 62) (when quoting)

Reference List

Walker, L. E. (2000). The battered woman syndrome (2nd ed.). New York: Springer.

Monro, V. (1835). A summer ramble in Syria: With a Tartar trip from Aleppo to Stamboul (Vol. 1). Retrieved from

http://books.google.com/books

Blossom, J. (2009). Content nation: Surviving and thriving as social media technology changes our lives and our

future. Retrieved from http://www.wiley.com

Schiraldi, G. R. (2001). The post-traumatic stress disorder sourcebook: A guide to healing, recovery, and growth

[Adobe Digital Editions version]. doi:10.1036/0071393722

Comments
  • If you retrieved an e-book from a database (e.g. Books24x7, Google Books), add the DOI (Digital Object Identifier) if available, at the end using the format: “doi:xxxxxxx” (6.32, p. 191).
  • Can't find the DOI? DOI Lookup.
  • If there is no DOI assigned, give the URL of the publisher's home page in place of the DOI. You may need to do a quick web search to locate the home page if you found the book in a library database (e.g. ebrary, Books24x7).
    • There is no period at the end of the URL.
Back to topBook – Groups as Authors (6.13, p. 176) 
Reference in Text (National Council of Welfare, 2001)
(National Council of Welfare, 2001, p. 17) (when quoting)
Reference List

National Council of Welfare (Canada). (2001). Child poverty profile, 1998. Ottawa, ON: National Council of

Welfare.

Comments
  • A "Group as Author" may be a corporation, an association, a government agency, etc.
  • In the example above, author and publisher are identical: 'National Council of Welfare'. In such cases you may use the word "Author" as the name of the publisher.
  • Provide the publisher if it is different from the author.
Back to topBook - Multiple Authors (6.12, pp. 175-176)
Reference in text (Bucher & Manning, 2006)
(Bucher & Manning, 2006, p. 138) (when quoting)
Reference List

Bucher, K., & Manning, M. L. (2006). Young adult literature: Exploration, evaluation, and appreciation. Upper

Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.

Comments
  • When a work has two authors, cite both names every time the reference occurs in text.
  • When a work has three, four or five authors, name all authors the first time the reference occurs; in the first subsequent citation use only the first author, followed by "et al." and a year. If you mention the same work again within one paragraph, omit the year. E.g.:
    • the first time: Smith, Jones, Pearson and Sherwin (1990) found...
    • the second time, as a first citation per paragraph: Smith et al. (1990) found...
    • mentioned again within the same paragraph: Smith et al. found...
  • For six or more authors,  cite only the last name of the first author followed by "et al."
  • When a work has two or more authors, use the word and in running text and an ampersand & in parenthetical material, in tables, captions, and in the reference list. E.g.:
    • as Bucher and Manning (2006) demonstrated ...
    • as has been shown (Bucher & Manning, 2006) ...
  • In the reference list invert all authors' names; give last names and initials for only up to and including seven authors. When authors number eight or more, include the first six authors’ names, then three ellipses (…), and add the last author’s name (6.27, p. 184).
Back to topChapter - Different Authors in Edited Book (6.27 p. 184)
Reference in Text (Sharp & Eriksen, 2003)
(Sharp & Eriksen, 2003, p. 126) (when quoting)
Reference List

Sharp, S. F., & Eriksen, M. E. (2003). Imprisoned mothers and their children. In B. H. Zaitzow & J. Thomas (Eds.),

Women in prison: Gender and social control (pp. 119-136). London: Lynne Rienner Publishers.

Comments
  • One editor - use the abbreviation (Ed.). More than one editor - use the abbreviation (Eds.).
  • In the example above, 'Sharp & Eriksen' are the authors of the chapter 'Imprisoned mothers and their children', published in the book 'Women in prison: Gender and social control'.
  • For a book with no editor, include the word 'In' before the book title.
Back to topJournal Article - Print Version (6.27-6.30, pp. 184-187)
Reference in Text (Louth, Hare & Linden, 1998)
Louth et al. (1998, p. 198) found that ["........."]. (when quoting)
Louth et al. (1998) found that [".........."] (p. 198). (when quoting)
Reference List

Louth, S. M., Hare, R. D., & Linden, W. (1998). Psychopathy and alexithymia in female offenders. Canadian

Journal of Behavioural Science, 30(2), 91-98.

Comments
  • If, and only if, each issue of a journal begins on page 1, give the issue number in parentheses (not italicized) immediately after the volume number (which is italicized). There is no space between the volume and issue number.
  • When a work has two authors, cite both names every time the reference occurs in text (6.11, p. 174).
  • When a work has three, four or five authors, name all authors the first time the reference occurs; in the first subsequent citation use only the first author, followed by 'et al.' and a year. If you mention the same work again within one paragraph, omit the year. E.g.:
    • the first time: Louth, Hare and Linden (1998) found...
    • the second time, as a first citation per paragraph: Louth et al. (1998) found...
    • mentioned again within the same paragraph: Louth et al. found...
  • For six or more authors, cite only the last name of the first author followed by 'et al.' and a year (6.12, p. 175).
  • When a work has two or more authors, use the word and in running text and an ampersand & in parenthetical material, in tables, captions, and in the reference list. E.g.:
    • as Louth, Hare and Linden (1998) demonstrated ...
    • as has been shown (Louth, Hare & Linden, 1998) ...
  • In the reference list invert all authors' names; give last names and initials for only up to and including seven authors. When authors number eight or more, include the first six authors’ names, then three ellipses (…), and add the last author’s name (6.27, p. 184).

Back to topJournal Article - Electronic (6.32, pp. 189-192)
 Retrieved from a database, such as PsycINFO, Academic Search Premier, JSTOR, etc. or on the internet

Reference in Text (Turner, 2007)
(Turner, 2007, p. 292) (when quoting)
(Lynch, 2004, para. 3) (when quoting an article without page numbers)
(Gruenwald, 2009, "Phytic Acid Contributes to") (quoting an article without page or paragraph numbers, using a shortened heading)
Reference List
 

Turner, J. (2007). Justice and emotions. Social Justice Research, 20(3), 288-311.

doi:10.1007/s11211-007-0043-y

Walters, W. (2008). Bordering the sea: Shipping industries and the policing of stowaways. Borderlands

E- Journal, 7(3), 1-25. Retrieved from http://www.borderlands.net.au/index.html

Ledger, W., Wiebinga, C., Anderson, P., Irwin, D., Holman, A., & Lloyd, A. (2009). Costs and outcomes

associated with IVF using recombinant FSH. Reproductive BioMedicine Online, 19(3), 337-342. Retrieved

from http://www.rbmonline.com/

Comments
  • For electronic versions based on a print source (such as PDF), include page numbers (6.32, p. 189).
  • The retrieval date is not required unless the source material is likely to change over time.
  • Generally it is not necessary to include information about which database it was retrieved from (6.32, p. 192).
  • When a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) is available, include the DOI right after the volume/issue number using the format: “doi:xxxxxxx” (6.32, p. 191).
  • Can't find the DOI? DOI Lookup.
  • If there is no DOI assigned, give the URL of the journal’s home page in place of the DOI. You may need to do a quick web search to locate the journal's website address if you found the article in a library database (e.g. Academic Search Premier, ScienceDirect).
    • There is no period at the end of the URL. 
  • Many electronic sources do not provide page numbers. In this case, use paragraph numbers preceded by the abbreviation 'para.' (Rule 6.05 pp. 171-172).
  • If a source contains neither page nor paragraph numbers, cite the heading (shorten the heading if it is long) (Rule 6.05 pp. 171-172).
Back to topArticle - Daily Newspaper, Print or Electronic (6.27-6.32, pp. 184-192)
Reference in Text ("All four pillars", 2004)
(Freeze, 2009)
Reference List

All four pillars needed to combat drug scourge. (2004, May 15). The Vancouver Sun, p. C6.


Freeze, C. (2009, October 7). ‘Toronto 18’ leader pleads guilty. The Globe and Mail. Retrieved from

http://www.theglobeandmail.com

Comments
  • In text, if the article does not have an author, use a title (shorten, if necessary). Put the title in quotes.
  • If an article appears on discontinuous pages (e.g. starts on p.D1 and continues on p.D5), give all page numbers, separated by a comma.
  • To cite a "letter to the editor", include the text [Letter to the editor] in square brackets, right after the title of the letter and before the title of the newspaper. There is no period after the title of the letter.
  • If you retrieved the article from a database (e.g. Canadian Newsstand, CBCA), add the DOI (Digital Object Identifier) at the end using the format: “doi:xxxxxxx” (6.32, p. 191).
  • Can't find the DOI? DOI Lookup.
  • If there is no DOI assigned, give the URL of the newspaper’s home page in place of the DOI. You may need to do a quick web search to locate the home page if you found the article in a library database (e.g. Canadian Newsstand, PressDisplay).
    • There is no period at the end of the URL.
Back to topArticle - Magazine, Print or Electronic (6.27-6.30, pp. 184-186)
Reference in Text (Morell, 2006)
(Morell, 2006, p. 131) (when quoting)
Reference List

Morell, V. (2006, March). Wolves of Ethiopia. National Geographic, 209, 124-135.

Mauro, S. (2009, November). A red tail returns. Aviation History, 20(2). Retrieved from

http://www.aviationhistory.org/am_aviation_history_magazine.html

Comments
  • Give the date shown on the publication: month for monthlies / month and day for weeklies.
  • If you retrieved the article from a database (e.g. Canadian Reference Centre, CBCA), add the DOI (Digital Object Identifier) at the end using the format: “doi:xxxxxxx” (6.32, p. 191).
  • Can't find the DOI? DOI Lookup.
  • If there is no DOI assigned, give the URL of the magazine’s home page in place of the DOI. You may need to do a quick web search to locate the home page if you found the article in a library database (e.g. MasterFile Premier, CBCA).
    • There is no period at the end of the URL.
Back to topWebsite - Entire Site, Not a Single Document or Web page
Reference in Text
  • The website for Simon Fraser University in British Columbia, Canada can be found at http://www.sfu.ca.
Reference list

Not applicable

Comments
  • Citation information for citing a website in its entirety (not a document or page found on that website) is from the APA style blog.
  • If you are citing the entire website cite the URL in the text - putting a reference in the Reference List is unnecessary. 
  • If you are quoting or paraphrasing information from a website you should cite that material using the format found in the next section - "Website - a Single Document or Part of a Large Website."
Back to topWebsite - A Single Document or Part of a Large Website (6.32, 7.11, pp. 189-192, 214-215)
Reference in Text (Spearing, 2004)
(Spearing, 2004, “Eating Disorders are Treatable”) (when quoting)
Reference List

Spearing, M. (2004, May). Eating disorders: Facts about eating disorders and the search for solutions. Retrieved

from http://www.nimh.nih.gov/publicat/eatingdisorders.cfm

Jess. (2009, April 18). Some things I have learned about teens [Web log post]. Retrieved from

http://coollibrarianblog.blogspot.com/2009/04/some-things-i-have-learned-about-teens.html

Comments
  • When citing a web site in the Reference List, provide as much as possible of the following information:
    • Author's name (if available).
    • Date of publication or update in parentheses (if available). If there is no date, use '(n.d.)' instead.
    • Title or description of document.
    • Title of complete work (if relevant), in italics or underlined.
    • URL.
  • If there is no author the title of the webpage is used in its place.
  • When making in-text citations, use paragraph numbers (abbreviated to “para.”) if page numbers are not available. If there are no paragraph numbers, use the heading. The heading may be shortened if necessary.
  • Do not include retrieval dates unless the source material is likely to change over time (e.g. blogs, wikis).
  • There is no period after the URL.
  • Do not insert a hyphen when breaking a long URL.
  • For blogs, include the name of the blog to which the entry was posted, if this information is not part of the URL. If the author’s full name is unavailable, use the screen name.
Back to topWebsite - Chapter or Section in a Document (6.32, 6.19, 6.05, pp. 192, 179, 171-172)
Reference in Text (Benton Foundation, 1998)
(Benton Foundation, 1998, Chapter 2) (when quoting)
Reference List

Benton Foundation. (1998, July 7). Barriers to closing the gap. In Losing ground bit by bit: Low-income

communities in the information age (chap.2). Retrieved from http://www.benton.org/publibrary/losing-

ground/two.html

Comments
  • 'Barriers to closing the gap' is the title of Chapter 2 of the Web document 'Losing ground bit by bit'.
  • When making in-text citations, use paragraph numbers (abbreviated to “para.”) if page numbers are not available. If there are no paragraph numbers, use the heading. The heading may be shortened if necessary.
  • Provide a URL that links directly to the chapter or section.
  • Do not insert a hyphen when breaking a long URL.
Back to topWebsite - No Author, No Date (6.27, 6.28, 6.15, pp. 184, 185, 176-177)
Reference in Text ("GVU's 10th WWW User Survey," n.d.)
Reference List

GVU’s 10th WWW user survey. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.gvu.gatech.edu/user_surveys/survey-1998-10/

Comments
  • When making in-text citations, use paragraph numbers (abbreviated to “para.”) if page numbers are not available. If there are no paragraph numbers, use the heading. The heading may be shortened if necessary.
Back to topEncyclopedia or Dictionary - Print or Electronic (7.02, pp. 202-203)
Reference in Text (Sadie, 2000)
Reference List

Sadie, S. (Ed.). (2000). The new Grove dictionary of music and musicians (2nd ed., Vols. 1-29). New York:

Grove's Dictionaries.

Zalta, E. N. (Ed.). (2007). The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy. Retrieved from http://plato.stanford.edu/

Comments
  • If you retrieved the entry from a database (e.g. Gale Virtual Reference Library), add the DOI (Digital Object Identifier) at the end using the format: “doi:xxxxxxx” (6.32, p. 191).
  • Can't find the DOI? DOI Lookup.
  • If there is no DOI assigned, give the URL of the publisher's home page in place of the DOI. You may need to do a quick web search to locate the home page if you found the article in a library database (e.g. Oxford Reference Online, Gale Virtual Reference Library).
    • There is no period at the end of the URL.
Back to topEntry in an Encyclopedia or Dictionary, Print or Electronic (7.02, pp. 202-203)
Reference in Text (Firdion, 2004)
(Firdion, 2004, p.169) (when quoting)
Reference List

Firdion, J. M. (2004). Foster care. In Encyclopedia of homelessness (Vol. 1, pp. 167-170). Thousand Oaks, CA:

Sage Publications.

Etzkowitz, H., & Dzisah, J. (2009). University–industry relationships. In J.B. Callicott & R. Froderman (Eds.),

Encyclopedia of environmental ethics and philosophy (Vol. 2, pp. 344-346). Retrieved from

http://www.gale.cengage.com/.

Jaunty. (1989). Oxford English dictionary (2nd ed.). Retrieved from http://oed.com/
Comments
  • If there is no author or editor of the entry, as in the last example, place the title in the author position.
  • If an online version refers to a print version, include the edition number after the title.
Back to topInformally Published or Self-Archived Work, Such as From ERIC Database (7.09, pp. 211-212)
Reference in Text (Skala, 2003)
(Skala, 2003, p. 49) (when quoting)
Reference List

Skala, C. (2003). Optimizing basic French skills utilizing multiple teaching techniques. Retrieved from ERIC

database. (ED498566)

Back to topAudiovisual Media - Videos, Music Recordings, Maps Retrieved Online, Podcasts, etc. (7.07, p. 209-210)
Reference in Text (Gladu & Brodeur, 2001)
Reference List

Gladu, A. (Producer), & Brodeur. M. (Director). (2001). Dance of the warrior [Motion picture]. Canada: National

Film Board.

Manhattan77. (2007, February 25). Ghost Towns and Death Valley [Video file]. Retrieved from

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RGCnyH6n2sw&feature=video_response

Comments
  • There is no period after the title.
  • If the author's full name is unavailable, use a screen name.
  • Do not insert a hyphen when breaking a long URL.
Back to topSecondary Source (6.17, p. 178)
Reference in Text

Seidenberg and McClelland's study showed (as cited in Coltheart, Curtis, Atkins, & Haller, 1993) that [...]

Reference List

Coltheart, M., Curtis, B., Atkins, P., & Haller, M. (1993). Models of reading aloud: Dual-route and parallel-

distributed-processing approaches. Psychological Review, 100, 589-608.

Comments
  • What you have in hand (Coltheart) is 'the secondary source', and the original work that has been cited in your source (Seidenberg) is 'the primary source'.
  • In the reference list give the secondary source (the one you have in hand; the one you consulted).
  • In text, name the primary source (Seidenberg), and give the citation to the secondary source: ('as cited in...')
Back to topConference Proceedings – Print or Electronic (7.04, pp. 206-207)
Reference in Text (Iyengar & DeVoe, 2003)
Reference List

Iyengar, S. S., & DeVoe, S. E. (2003). Rethinking the value of choice: Considering cultural mediators of intrinsic

motivation. In R. Dienstbier (Ed.), Nebraska Symposium on Motivation: Vol. 49. Cross-cultural differences

in perspectives on the self (pp. 129-174). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.

Shennan, S. (2008).  Canoes and cultural evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105,

3416-3420. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0800666105

Comments
  • Published conference proceedings may be cited either like chapters in edited books (first example) or like journal articles (second example). This will depend on whether the publication is treated as a series (e.g. has an ISBN and an editor) or as a periodical (i.e. it is published annually).
  • For unpublished conference papers and contributions see Rule 7.04, p.206.
  • Capitalize the name of the symposium, conference or meeting.
Back to topPersonal Communications, Interviews and Class Notes (6.20, p. 179)
Reference in Text

In his interview M.S. Bloomberg (personal communication, April 22, 2007) talks about...

Reference List  Not Usually Applicable
Comments
  • Personal communications may be letters, e-mails, interviews, telephone conversations, etc.
  • Some forms of personal communication are recoverable, and these should be referenced as archival material (See Rule 7.10, pp.212-214 for examples of archival material).
  • Unpublished, unrecoverable personal communications are not included in the reference list because they do not provide recoverable data. Cite in text only.
  • Cite information from your own class notes as a personal communication and refer to it only in the body of your paper (e.g. In a lecture on September 23, 2007 to a PSYC 103 class, Professor Brown said... ).
  • Published interviews are included in the reference list. If the published interview has a title, include it after the year. Give further description in [brackets] if necessary. Provide the original source where the interview was published (e.g. a print journal article with one author, a website, etc.) and choose the format accordingly. If the published interview lacks a title, give a description of the interview in [brackets].
  • See Rule 7.11, pp. 214-215 for citing messages posted to newsgroups, online forums and electronic mailing lists.

Back to top Tables and Figures - Charts, Graphs, Maps, Photographs, etc. (Chapter 5, pp. 125-167)

Reference Below Table or Figure Note. Adapted from "The Role of the Shared Family Context in Differential Parenting," by J.M. Jenkins, J. Rasbash, and T.G. O'Connor, 2003, Developmental Psychology, 39, p.104. Copyright 2003 by the American Psychological Association.
Comments
  • Include the word Note. before your citation.
  • The citation follows a different format from the other examples listed here, and is placed below the table or figure.
  • Use this citation form for tables or figures from another source which you reprint.
Back to topCustom Courseware
Comments Custom Courseware packages are compilations of journal articles, book chapters and other materials selected by your instructor. The APA manual does not give specific advice about citing these materials, so you will have to use your judgment and come up with your own solution.

If you need to cite a source from a Custom Courseware package, here are two suggestions. However, our strong recommendation is to first check with your instructor.

1. Find the full citation where the article, chapter, etc. was originally published, and cite accordingly. The full citations may be included on the first page of the coursepack. If not, search a relevant database or the library catalogue, or ask a librarian.

2. Treat the Courseware package as an anthology, and the instructor who did the compilation as a book editor/compiler. Therefore, treat the article, chapter, etc. as if it was part of an anthology, or edited book. Most probably you will not have the page numbers, since the Custom Courseware is not a true publication and is not paginated throughout. You will also have to include the name of the compiler, the title of the Courseware, the name of the course (e.g. CMNS 210), the semester (e.g. Spring 2010) and the publisher (Simon Fraser University). Bear in mind that someone trying to find the article/chapter from a coursepack you cited might not have access to the same coursepack.

 

Back to topAdditional Web Sources

 

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