If you need help, please contact Jenna Walsh, Indigenous Initiatives Librarian & Liaison for Archaeology, First Nations Studies and Political Science at 778.782.9378 or email@example.com or Ask a librarian.
Professor: Rudy Reimer/Yumks
Course Outline: FNST 301 Issues in Applied First Nations Studies Research (Fall 2013)
Selected SFU guides:
- Anthropology, Education, Health Sciences, History, Legal Information, Public Policy, Resource and Environmental Management, Sociology, Urban Studies,
Start Your Research Here Guide (overview of research process)
- Popular VS Scholarly sources
- Library Catalogue Search Guide (finding books)
- Fast Search | SFU Library (finding books and articles)
- Finding Journal Articles (finding articles)
- Library Research Tutorials (earch techniques for finding books and journal articles)
- Library Research Concepts Worksheet (Concept Map / Keywords)
- Research Checklist: Have you done? (for ideas on types of sources available)
RefWorks, RefWorks FAQs, RefWorks Training / SFU RefWorks Quick Guide
- software to manage your citations, create bibliographies fast in styles you need(APA, MLA etc)
- format your essay in minutes, including in-text citations and bibliographies
- Start Your Research Here Guide (overview of research process)
- Information for Authors & Style Guide. Society for American Archaeology (SAA) - Go to page 16 to see citation formats
- Find APA, Chicago, MLA, etc. here
- Background Information (Encyclopedias, Biographical, Chronologies, Guides to First Nations Research),
- Journal articles -- Database grouped by: First Nations/General, Canadian, Primary Documents, Electronic Journals
- Sessional Paper
Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada
(formerly, Indian and Northen Affairs Canada) - including their Annual Report
- Libraries Archives Canada (LAC)
- Canadian Museum of Civilization
- Office of the Auditor General
- Primary sources
Maps and Atlases
- E.g. A Stó:lo-Coast Salish Historical Atlas. Bennett G 1171 E1 S86 2001
- First Nations Peoples of British Columbia. B.C. Ministry of Education. Aboriginal Education [Map]
- Indigenous Academia - SFU RefWorks Shared link
Other Non-SFU guides
- Aboriginal Archives Guide - by Association of Canadian Archivists
- IPortal - Indigenous Studies Research Tool - (University of Saskatchewan Library)
When you already have a reference (citation) to a book or article - efficient way to find out if SFU Library has it.
E.g. LItosseliti, L. (2006). Constructing gender in public arguments: The female voice as emotional voice. In J. Baxter (Ed.), The female voice in contexts (pp. 40-58). New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006.
Myles, F. (2010). The development of theories of second language acquisition. Language Teaching, 43(3), 320-332.
Two ways to search for books in the SFU Library Collection
1) FastSearch Tab, from the search box from home page, and
2) Library Catalogue, under link, "Books, Media" from home page.
Books - Via Fast Search
New! What is Fast Search? | SFU Library - both books and articles
e.g. (poverty OR poor) AND elderly AND canada
- In the FastSearch engine, make sure the "boolean" connector words (AND, OR) are in "capital" letters.
- use the "subject" listing in the left hand column to narrow your topic.
Books - Searching via Library Catalogue
Books tend to cover a subject thoroughly and are usually easy to obtain. Use the Library Catalogue to find books and reports owned by SFU.
For works on a topic, search first by KEYWORD. Here are some sample keyword searches:
- sexual harassment and universities
- (poverty or poor) and elderly
- s:homelessness and canad* [this search looks for the word "homelessness" in the authorized subject heading field and the words "canada" or "canadian" or "canadians", etc., anywhere in the record for a book, including the title of the book and its subject heading]
Look at the authorized or standard SUBJECT HEADINGS used in the records. Is there one that describes what you are looking for? If so, click on it to find other books on your topic.
Use the references (referenced articles and books) listed at the back of relevant books on your topic as guides for further reading.
For more help using the catalogue, see the Library Guide, "How to use the Library Web Catalogue".
After you've found some worthwhile results, look at them and scan them for Subject Headings or Descriptors. Subject headings and descriptors are terms that have been assigned to each article. They are extremely useful for locating books or articles on the same subject. The SFU Library Catalogue and most, but not all, electronic databases use these. Using subject headings in your search can lead to more accurate results but it's almost always easier to start with keyword searching first.
Be careful of spelling - most databases use American spelling - but you should try both versions (e.g. labour, labor).
Be prepared to find information that is not completely on topic, but may still be useful and relevant.
Terminology in Library of Congress Subject Headings (Library Catalogue and many databases use this list of words) may be outdated, but you may need to think about how terms may have been used "historically."
Examples of subject headings related to "homelessness" topic:
Identifying Key Concepts: Before you start researching your topic, sit back and think about what you want to write about. If you don't have an assigned topic, it's sometimes easier to create one by asking a question. For example:
Is teen homelessness caused by poverty?
Break down your topic into concepts or keywords. Clearly articulate what is meant by homelessness, teens, poverty, and causation. Ask yourself questions like:
- Is the idea of homelessness here defined as street people, runaways, people on social assistance?
- How is poverty defined?
Library Research Concepts Worksheet (Concept Map / Keywords)
|Concept 1||Concept 2||Concept 3||Concept 4|
|Related Terms||Related Terms||Related Terms||Related Terms|
After you've identified terms relevant to your area of research, the next step is to use them either individually or in combination with each other until you locate information relevant to your research. Here are some tools to help you.
Too many or too few results? Try combining terms using AND, OR, NOT. (Called "Boolean Operators" in library-speak).. Use them to narrow or broaden your search.
- AND: use to narrow your search when you must find one or more terms in combination with each other: "homelessness and choice and lifestyle" would require that each of these words be present somewhere in the document or record in order to result in a successful search
- OR: use to widen your search—especially when you're using related terms: "lifestyle or way of life or culture or class" would retrieve documents with ANY of these words.
- NOT: use sparingly (if at all) as it will exclude any words you add after it.
Combining Terms: You can combine your Boolean searches to get better results. Remember to group like operators together within parentheses: "(lifestyle or way of life) and homeless and choice" will retrieve documents with either of the first two words and both the following two words.
Need more? Try a little truncation. Truncation is a shortcut, expressed by a symbol, to help you search for variations and multiple endings for your search terms. Common truncation symbols are: $, ?, ! but the most popular is the *.
For example, econ* will retrieve economic, economics, economical, economy, economies, etc.
Modify your search terms as you search the databases and become aware of new terms to describe your topic.
- Guides: How to find journal articles guide,
- What is a scholarly, peer-reviewed journal?,
- Popular vs scholarly -- see highlights
- How to Critically Evaluate Sources
- Moving from Citation to Article
- Electronic Journals
Use the same strategy as for books for defining your topic and identifying key authors and sources and capturing results. Go from the from Journal Articles and Databases link on Library's home page to:
First Nations Studies -- list of databases using the pulldown menu
- Google Scholar -- if you do use Google, use Google Scholar instead, using the link at the bottom of the page or look for it under "G" in the alphabetical list of databases. Then it will link to the fulltext of electronic books and articles for all those things that the Library has already paid for.
- Bibliography of Native North Americans (BNNA) - from 17th century to present. Includes citations to books, articles, and govenment report about Native North American culture, history, and life, archaeology, multicultural relations, gaming, governance, legend, and literacy.
- Native Health Databases - bibliographic information and abstracts of health-related articles, reports, surveys, and other resource documents pertaining to the health and health care of American Indians, Alaska Natives, and Canadian First Nations.
- Academic Search Complete - multi-disciplinary
- America: History and Life - focus is North American history, including Canada
- Anthropology Plus Unites Harvard's Anthropological Literature and the Royal Anthropological Institute's Anthropological Index Online
- AnthroSource Full-text journals published by the American Anthropological Association. To join concepts together use capitals for "AND" as well as "OR" for correct boolean searching within this database.
CINAHL with Full Text CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature)is the authoritative resource for nursing and allied health professionals, students, educators and researchers.
Environment Complete - Indexes over 1,900 environmental journals, with fulltext access to about 750. Also available is fulltext access to over 200 monographs.
Google Scholar - also try it for "cited reference searches", i.e. who has cited your "key" resources
- JSTOR - archival..... does not cover the current 5-7 years of journals.
Linguistics and Language Behavior Abstracts - linguistics, language and speech, language and hearing pathology.
- Medline - health literature
- Project MUSE Search,
- Sage Research Methods Online Access to research methods online from books and numerous reference sources. E.g. search for "oral history"
- Social Sciences Full Text
Sociological Abstracts Theoretical and applied sociology, social science, and policy science.
- First Nations Periodical Index - no longer updated
CBCA Fulltext Reference- Canadian popular and scholarly journals, from mid 1980s on wards.
Use UBC's Wxi7xwa Library's terminology listed in their guide
Guide to truncation symbols and First Nations terms used in the databases (pdf)
- Use UBC's Wxi7xwa Library's terminology listed in their guide
Canadian Public Policy Collection Full text of public policy documents from Canadian institutes, think-tanks and research groups. Includes the Canadian Health Research Collection
Canadian Newsstand - fulltext of major Canadian daily newspapers from about mid-80s.
British Columbia Newspaper Index
Indexes the Province, the Vancouver Sun, and The Victoria Times Colonist (1990- ).
Newspaper index [microform]
Created by the B.C. Provincial Library, indexes the Vancouver Province, Vancouver Sun, Victoria Daily Colonist (1900-1990) (PN 02 12 Microforms Classified ).<---- 6th floor in microfilm area, by call no.
AMMSA Archives - from Aboriginal Multi Media Society of Alberta -- fulltext of First Nations newspapers some going back to 1983. Click on the URL.
From the Home page, click on to the individual newspaper, or use the search box, and limit it to News, from the pull down menu.
Globe & Mail Canada's Heritage from 1844
Searchable full-text of the Globe and Mail from 1844 to 2001. Includes major events in Canadian history, plus thousands of images, advertisements, and political cartoons dating back to the pre-confederation era.
Covers major news in Canada and around the world during this period, including every image, advertisement, classified ad, birth and death notice. E.g.
- Indian* or native
- Tip: choose "boolean search" in the bottom pull down menu if you use "or" or "and" to combine terms.
Central access point for Canadian theses (Masters and PhD), including free full text of theses since 1998.
Digital Dissertations -Theses form North America and over 200 other institutions from around the world
- Canadian Research Index - Canadian Government reports. SFU Library has the microfiche collection associated with the "Microlog number", besides each record. (6th floor). Once you identify a report here, you may also wish to go to the government department's website and see if the report is available online. E.g.
For earlier period, try print equivalent: Microlog Index (JL 75 Z955; 1979-1995; Bennett Reference Indexes)
- Early Canadiana Online - (see Primary Documents section for more details) -- Full text, online collection of more than 3,000 books and pamphlets documenting Canadian history from the first European contact to the late 19th century.
Human Relations Area Files (eHRAF) - Covers the cultures of the world. Full-text data on world archaeological traditions. There is a microfiche collection which has been partially converted and updated into the electronic. Check both to see if your group is covered. The database uses a classification scheme to organize topics, which works better than keywords in the databases.
- List of Cultures to see if your group is covered in their database or the microfiche collection (6th floor) - eHRAF User Guide for assistance.
Early Canadiana Online
Full text, online collection of more than 3,000 books and pamphlets documenting Canadian history from the first European contact to the late 19th century, including "Journals of the Legislative assembly of the Province of Canada", "Sessional papers" of the Dominion of Canada. SFU Library has the "CIHM Microfiche" collection that supplements the database.
- Be sure to also search the Library Catalogue, since not everything that was microfilmed has yet been made available fulltext within the ECO database.
In the Library Catalogue, search: "cihm" AND "your topic".
- cihm and haida
- cihm and stalo
- cihm and (boarding or residential) and school
In ECO database, search for "haida" and "your topic"
- Search in "Fulltext"
- When you come across a relevant item, check its "subject headings" and do a search on that.
Try searching "Haida" in "subject heading" (use the pulldown menu)
- Haida Indians
- Haida language, etc.
Search in "Subject" -
To email or save items from the ECO database:
- Click on a title from the results list
- Download the "pdf" document
- Save as (pdf) on your desktop
- Send as "attachment" via your email.
Browse by Collection
- collections such as "Native Studies", "Jesuit Relations", "Fur Trade and the Hudson's Bay Company"
Early Encounters in North America (1534 - 1850)
-includes works by American Indians, Canadian First Peoples, and many European groups, capturing first impressions, hundreds of years of observations of flora and fauna, descriptions of encounters with indigenous peoples, and new language elements as they evolved. Also resents the perspectives of traders, slaves, missionaries, explorers, soldiers, officials, and others.
From the home page, click on to the "Peoples" link. Check the list under "North American" to see if your group is represented. E.g. Clayquot (1 doc), Bella Coola (1 doc), etc.
Even if the above section does not contain your group, do a "keyword" search, and there may be documents. E.g. "Haida"
Look for "Cultural events" or "Environment" or "Encounters", etc. from the Table of Contents.
North American Indian Thought and Culture / also known as North American Indian Biographical Database - full text and audio file. Organized in a similar manner to "Early Encounters in North America" database. It contains biographies, oral histories, personal stories, speeches by chiefs, depictions of historically important events, biographies from contemporary Indian newspapers.
House of Commons Parliamentary Papers (Britain)
- papers issued by the British House of Commons between 1801-1900 in all formats, including Bills, Reports of Royal Commissions, Reports of Select Committees, Accounts and Papers, and Command Papers. These are the working documents of British government for all areas of social, political, economic and foreign policy.
- Topics include Canadian confederation, the abolition of slavery, electoral reform, affairs of the British in North America, and more.
Browse 19th Century Subject Catalogue,
Select "Dominions and Colonies" and then "Canada, Newfoundland, and Bermuda" and then:
- "Churches", "Constitution & Government", "Emigration to Canada", "Indian Affairs
Select "Colonial Administration" and then "Aboriginal Tribes"
- Select "Dominions and Colonies" and then "Canada, Newfoundland, and Bermuda" and then:
Search by keywords: (canad* or british north america) and (aborig* or indian* or native*)
- (Hudson's Bay company) and (aborig* or indian* or native*)
First Nations Studies - Check this link for access to fulltext of e-journals.
Selected titles listed below...
NOTE: The "Sessional papers", the "Debates" and the "Journals" of the House of Commons of Canada (Dominion of Canada/ Legislature of Canada) are all part of the Early Canadiana Online database.
- Canada. Legislature. Legislative Council. Journals of the Legislative Council of the Province of Canada 1841-1866
- Canada. Legislature. Legislative Assembly. Sessional Papers 1860-1866.
Canada. Parliament. Sessional Papers of the Dominion of Canada 1868-1925
- "Ceased publication in 1925." "In 1925, the House of Commons ceased to order annual departmental reports to be printed as Sessional papers." Cf. Note, Annual departmental reports, 1924-25, vol. 1, p. " (quoted from Library record, mb)
- Continues: Canada. Legislature. Legislative Assembly. Sessional Papers 9_01607
- Continued by: Canada. Parliament. Annual departmental reports Ottawa : King's Printer, [1925-1955]
Canada. Parliament. House of Commons. Journals of the House of Commons of the Dominion of Canada 1868-1976
- Canada. Parliament. House of Commons. Journals of the House of Commons. Current Sessions of the House of Commons, 1994 on
- Canada. Parliament. House of Commons. Official report of the debates of the House of Commons of the Dominion of Canada 1883-
- Canada. Parliament. House of Commons. Debates of the House of Commons of the Dominion of Canada 1875-1882
- Canada. Parliament. House of Commons. Appendix to ... of the Journals of the Legislative Assembly of the Province of Canada 1842-1859)
For land claim agreements, community profiles, maps, legislation, and treaty information.
- Advanced Search Engine
- About AANDC -- see "research & statistics" and "publications"
- Annual Reports
Note: Recent annual reports are now "Performance Reports", prior to that they were called "Estimates Reports". In 1991 the departmental annual report was integrated into the Estimates Part III (which now includes the Report on Plans and Priorities and the Performance Report) and the Public Accounts. These are available from Tresury Board & Library Archives Canada sites, linked below.
- Performance Reports 1996 - 2010
- Indian Affairs Annual Reports 1864-1990
- Print copies of the annual reports at SFU Library
- Microfiche copies of annual reports at SFU Library E 044 19 - Annual report of the Department of Indian Affairs [Microform]. microfiche (6th floor of the SFU Library) 1880-1935/36
Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples - Report of the (RCAP), Print-- E 78 C2 R46 1996
Highlights from the RCAP - Major themes and conclusions are summarized
- Oral Narratives and Aboriginal Pasts
Select the "popular resources" from left hand column, and then the "Aboriginal Resources". Use the search engine on top right to search andy of the following: library, archives or the entire website..
Aboriginal Resources and Services
- Aboriginal Peoples - Guide to the Records of the Government of Canada -- Guides, research assistance, and finding aids for documents in the National Archives, including Record Group 10 (Indian Affairs documents), Metis scrip records, major provincial accessions, band and agency records, and selected federal government records. E.g.
- Researching Your Aboriginal Ancestry at Library and Archives Canada
- Record Group (RG) 10 (Indian Affairs) Inventory
Red and Black Series: Evolution of Department of Indian Affairs' Central Registry Record Keeping Systems: 1872-1984 by Sean Darcy - (Aboriginal Documentary Heritage)
- Treaties, Surrenders and Agreements by John Leslie
- Bands and Agencies
- Aboriginal Resources and Services
- Aboriginal Soldiers and the First World War by James Dempsey
Native Residential Schools in Canada: A Selective Bibliography
Archives Canada is an official archival portal maintained The Canadian Council of Archives (CCA) and is a joint initiative of CCA, the Provincial – Territorial Archival Networks, and Library and Archives Canada. Use the View option halfway down the main screen to look at digital collection images.
- Library Archives Canada's Link to Archival Organizations
- Canadian Archival Resources on the Internet
Provincial and Territorial Archives
- BC Archives -
- B.C. Archival sources (93)
- All Provincial Archives
- Association of Canadian Archivists, check out their Outreach documents to learn more about archives. E.g.
Canadian Museum of Civilization. They have reorganized their website.
- Search engine - Library Catalogue
- Check their Resources for Scholars, with its Bibiliographies, Essays, Monographs, and Resources
- Online Exhibits
For performance of federal departments of the Government of Canada, check out the reports of the Office of the Auditor General of Canada.
- Search by keywords in the search engine (e.g. first nations, aboriginal, indian, native)
- Examine their section on Reports & Publications (Audit reports, Reports to Parliament, Reports to Northern Legislative Assemblies)