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Citation Guide: Chicago/Turabian (16th ed.)


This guide is based on The Chicago Manual of Style (16th ed.) and provides only selected citation examples for commonly used sources, and of notes/bibliography style only. For more detailed information, directly consult the style manual.
  • Online version of The Chicago Manual of Style
  • Print copies are available at SFU Library, Call number: Z 253 U69 2010. Copies may also be purchased from the SFU Bookstore.
  • For the best printing results, use the printer-friendly PDF format of this guide.

Keep track of your document references/citations and format your reference lists easily with citation management software.


General notes: Footnotes & Endnotes | Shortened Citations | Bibliography | Abbreviations | Additional Web Resources

How to cite:
Books | Chapters | Encyclopedias
Lectures | Films | Websites
Print articles | Electronic articles | Magazine articles | Newspaper articles
Secondary sources | Custom Courseware | Using RefWorks
Canadian Government documents

 General Notes on Chicago Style

  • Chicago style is sometimes referred to as Turabian style, which is a modified version of Chicago style, and which is outlined in A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations by Kate L. Turabian. Copies of this style manual (7th ed.) are also available at SFU Library.
  • Chicago style outlines two distinct citation styles (14.2), and this guide covers only the Humanities style:
    • Notes/bibliography style, also known as "Humanities style." Sources are cited through footnotes (or endnotes) and a bibliography
    • Author/date style, also known as "Scientific/Social Sciences style." Sources are cited through parenthetical author/date references in the text and a reference list
  • It is recommended practice, but not absolutely necessary, to cite your sources in both the notes and the bibliography. The practice of including both notes and a bibliography is still common practice amongst humanities scholars, so make sure to consult your instructor.
  • If you choose not to include a bibliography in your paper or choose to create only a partial list of references, you must provide full details of the sources you cited in your notes. (The first time you mention a work in the notes, you must provide full publication details.  All subsequent notes of the same work can be written in short form.)  If, on the other hand, your bibliography includes all sources cited in the notes, you need not provide full publication details in the notes since a reader can consult the bibliography (14.14).
  • Your paper must be double-spaced. It is conventional to single-space footnotes and bibliographies, leaving a blank line between entries.
  • Every page of the paper must be assigned a page number, including blank pages, appendices, and bibliography. Arabic numerals are centered or flush right at the top of the page.
  • You need to cite and document any sources that you have consulted, even if you presented the ideas from these sources in your own words (13.1 - 13.6). You need to cite:
    • to identify other people's ideas and information used within your essay
    • to inform the reader of your paper where they should look if they want to find the same sources
  • A citation must appear in two places in your essay (14.14):
    • in the notes (footnotes or endnotes)
    • in the bibliography (at the end of your paper)
  • To introduce other people's ideas in text, use the following examples:
    Richardson argues, refers to, explains, hypothesizes, compares, concludes;
    As Littlewood and Sherwin demonstrated, proved, ... etc.
  • Webster's Third New International Dictionary and Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary are the standard spelling references for all Chicago citations (7.1).
  • You are responsible for the accuracy of all information in your notes and bibliography (13.6).

References in Text: Footnotes and Endnotes (14.14 - 14.55)

  • In Chicago notes/bibliography style, footnotes or endnotes are used to cite quotes, paraphrases, and other in-text references (13.3, 14.14-14.40).
    • Footnotes are numbered citations listed at the bottom of each page in the research paper
    • Endnotes are numbered citations listed on a single page at the end of the research paper
  • To cite a source, a small superscript (raised) number is placed after each in-text reference. Throughout the paper, these in-text references are numbered in sequential order (14.20). For example:
           Mooney found that "domestic violence has, since the 1970s, been increasingly recognized as a social problem." 1
  • Each numbered reference then corresponds to a numbered citation in the footnote or endnote that provides author, date, and publication information for each source (14.14). The numbers in the notes are full size, not raised, and followed by a period.
  • Citations in notes are single-spaced (unless otherwise instructed), but there is a double space between entries. The first line is indented.

References in Text: Shortened Citations (14.14; 14.24 - 14.31)

  • The first in-text reference to a given source must be cited in full with the name of the author/s, title of the work, place of publication, name of the publisher, and page number/s of the cited reference (14.14, 14.18). For example:    
  • Subsequent notes for sources that have already been cited may be shortened to the author's last name, abbreviated title, and the appropriate page reference (14.14, 14.18, 14.24 - 14.31). For example:


  • Immediately following notes that refer to the same source may be shortened even further to "ibid." (short for 'ibidem' - the Latin word for "in the same place") and the appropriate page reference (14.29). For example:


Bibliography (14.14 - 14.18; 14.56 - 14.67)

  • The list of sources at the end of the paper or at the end of the chapter is called the bibliography. This list must include all references cited in the text of your paper (14.56 - 14.57).
  • In the bibliography, entries are listed in alphabetical order according to the authors' last names. If no author or editor is provided, the work's title may be used instead (14.57).
  • Entries are double-spaced, but single-spacing is used within each entry. The second and subsequent lines are indented.
  • When the bibliography includes multiple entries by the same author listed together, a 3-em dash may be used to replace the author's name after the first entry (14.63 - 14.57). For example:


  • For more information about how to format your bibliography, see sections 14.56 - 14.67.

Common Abbreviations (10.1 - 10.72)

  • When books have editors, translators, or compilers, the following abbreviations are used (10.43, 14.72 - 14.92):
    • one editor - ed. / two or more editors - eds.
    • translators - trans.
    • one compiler - comp. / two or more compilers - comps.
  • For editions of books other than the first, the edition number (or description) and the abbreviation "ed." are placed after the book's title in all notes and bibliographic citations (14.118 - 14.120). For example:
    • second edition - 2nd ed.
    • revised edition - rev. ed.


How to cite...

Book - Single Author (14.75)
In Text

"[T]he moment of death occurs while we’re still alive. Life marches right up to the wall of that final darkness, one extreme state of being butting against the other. Not even a breath separates them. Not even a blink of the eye."1

  • In a note, state the author's full name, starting with the author's first name.
  • In a bibliography, state the author's name in the inverse starting with the author's last name (e.g. Shields, Carol).
  • The publisher's name may be slightly abbreviated by omitting The, Inc., Ltd., Co., etc. (14.139 - 14.140).
  • If a work contains more than one place of publication, only include the first place listed.  If the place of publication is not well known or could be confused with another place with the same name (e.g. Cambridge), then add the province or state abbreviation in the two-letter postal code format without periods separating the letters (e.g. Cambridge, MA) (14.136, 10.28).


Book - Two Authors (14.76)
  • In the bibliography, if two authors are listed, invert the name of the first author and add a comma with "and" proceeding the second author's name.
  • Spell out "and" in letters - do not use an ampersand "&" between the first and second authors' names.
  • If the work you are citing is an edition other than the first, include the edition number after the title (14.118).


Book - Three or more Authors (14.76)



  • For books with more than three, and less than ten authors, all names should be fully cited in the bibliography.
  • In a note, however, only the first author's name needs to be fully cited; the rest of the names can be replaced by the phrase "et al."  For example:  4. Bob Evans et al., Governing Sustainable Cities (London: Earthscan, 2005), 12.
  • For works with more than ten authors (e.g. in the natural sciences), only the first seven need to be fully cited in the bibliography; the rest of the names can be replaced by the phrase "et al."


Book - Organization as Author (14.92)

  • An organization as author may be an organization, association, corporation, committee, city, etc. There is no personal author's name on the title page.
  • Provide the organization as author in the bibliography even if the organization is also the publisher. 


Book - Editor, Translator, or Compiler in place of Author (14.87)
  • If there is no author on the title page of a work, list instead the name(s) of the editor (ed. or eds.), compiler (comp. or comps.), or translator (trans.).
  • The abbreviated forms appear in notes as well as in the bibliography.


Book - Editor, Translator, Compiler in addition to Author (14.88)

  • The author's name appears first. In addition, the name(s) of the editor(s), compiler(s) or translator(s) appear after the title.
  • In the bibliography, a spelled-out version is used: "edited by", "translated by", "compiled by". However, the abbreviations are used in notes.
  • In notes, use the abbreviation "ed." (not "eds.") and "comp." (not "comps.") even if there is more than one editor or compiler.


Book - No Author, Editor, Translator, or Compiler (14.79)
  • If a work does not have a known author or editor, begin the note or bibliography entry with the title, unless the author is listed as "Anonymous."


Book Chapter - Anthology or Compilation (14.113)

  • Start with the author(s) of the chapter. Continue with the chapter title in quotation marks, followed by in (in a note) or In (in the bibliography), followed by the title of the whole book and the editor(s).
  • Two editors in notes: After the edited book title, type in: eds. followed by the names (e.g. eds. Anne Carr and Mary Stewart).
  • Two editors in the bibliography: After the edited book title, type in: edited by Anne Carr and Mary Stewart.


Journal Article - Print Version (14.175 - 14.183, 14.186 - 14.197)


  • Provide the full journal title in italics, and include full publication details: volume number (87 in the example above), issue number (no. 2) and date. Date may include the month or season, as well as year of publication, e.g. April 1999 or Spring 1992) (14.180).
  • If you are citing an article from a journal with continuous pagination within a volume, or if you include the month and year of publication, you may omit the journal issue number (14.180).
  • If the journal volume or publication date is not apparent, state the issue number only, following the comma after the journal title (14.181).
  • In notes, only the page number(s), where the cited reference appears, is given (14.183).
  • For the bibliography, the page numbers for the entire article (i.e. from the first to the last page) are given (14.183).


Journal Article - Online Version (14.4 - 14.12, 14.184 - 14.185)
Retrieved from a database (e.g. JSTOR, PsycInfo, Academic Search Elite)


  • Cite an online journal article the same as you would a print journal article (see 14.175 - 14.183) but, in addition, include a DOI at the end of a note and bibliography entry, followed by a period.
  • If DOI is not available, provide a URL of the journal article, followed by a period. A stable URL is preferable to the URL in your browser's address bar. 
  • Can't find the DOI? DOI Lookup :
  • Although Chicago does not recommend that access dates be cited for electronic sources (14.7), certain publishers,  disciplines, or your professor may require this information. If that is the case, the date of retrieval should be placed directly before the DOI or the URL.  Access dates should be written as follows: accessed December 12, 2009 (in a note) and Accessed December 12, 2009 (in the bibliography) (14.185).


Magazine Article - Print and Online Versions (14.199 - 14.202)
  • Weekly or monthly magazines are cited by date (month/year) only, even if there is a volume/issue number (14.199).
  • Note that there is a comma, not a colon, after the date in the bibliography entry (14.199).
  • Include a DOI or URL at the end of the citation, followed by a period, if you viewed the magazine article online (14.200).
  • If the article you are citing was found in a database, provide the database name after the publication details (e.g. CBCA Reference and Current Events) and any identification number in parentheses (14.271).


Newspaper Article (14.203 - 14.213)
In Text

In an article on rampage killers, Laurie Goodstein and William Glaberson describe the warning signs either missed or unreported by colleagues, friends, family members or teachers.13


goodstein text



Goodstein, Laurie, and William Glaberson.  “The Well-Marked Roads to Homicidal Rage.” New York Times, April 10, 2000, national edition.

  • The essential information to provide when citing a newspaper article is the name of the author(s), the article title and the date of issue, which includes: month/day/year (14.203).
  • Page numbers may be omitted (14.203).
  • Include an edition statement (e.g. national edition, weekend edition) (14.203).
  • Include the URL for an online article (14.203).
  • If the article you are citing was found in a database, provide the database name (e.g. Historical New York Times) and any identification number in parentheses after the publication details (14.271).
  • Use sentence-style capitalization for article titles (14.204, see also 8.156 - 8.157).
  • The city and state or province should be added in parentheses after the name of the newspaper in italics (14.203).  For example: Globe and Mail (Toronto, ON).
  • If a newspaper article is described in detail in your paper and included in a note, it is not necessary to list the article in the bibliography (14.206).
  • If no author is provided, begin the citation with the article title and alphabetize according to the article title in the bibliography (14.203).


Website (14.243 - 14.246)


  • Include the title and author/sponsor of cited websites in the body of your paper as well as in the notes and bibliographic entries (14.244).
  • Website citations should include: author, title, owner or sponsor of the site, date of publication, modification or revision and URL (14.245).
  • The title of a website is not put in quotation marks and is not italicized unless it is also the title of a book.  Titled sections or pages within a website are put in quotation marks (14.244).
  • If no publication, modification or revision date is available on the website, provide an access date (e.g. accessed May 18, 2005) (14.245). 
  • A blog title needs to be italicized (e.g. Michael Geist's Blog) and the tiles of blog entries put in quotation marks.  Include also the word "blog" in parentheses if not part of the blog title, the date the blog entry was posted and a URL. Treat a blog entry in the same way you would an article in a periodical (14.244, 14.246).
  • References to website content (a webpage rather than the whole website or an entire work) must be included in the notes but not necessarily in the bibliography (14.245).


Encyclopedia/Dictionary Entry, Print / Online (14. 247 - 14.248)
In Text

You may want to include the full information in the body of your text. For example:
In his article on Nebo in the eleventh edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica, Morris Jastrow noted that...








(Unsigned / Signed article)







  • Well-known encyclopedias and dictionaries are usually cited only in notes, with the edition specified but not all the publication facts. It is not necessary to list them in bibliographies. Other subject-specific and lesser-known encyclopedias and dictionaries should include publication details in both notes and bibliographic entries (14.247).
  • The abbreviation "s.v." (sub verbo, Latin for "under the word") is used to identify the article's title that is not signed (14.247).
  • It may be appropriate to include the author of an entry if the entry is signed (12.248).
  • If you cite an online encyclopedia or dictionary, always include an access date in addition to the short form of the URL. This is because online versions of encyclopedias are subject to continuous updates (12.248).
  • If the article you are citing was found in a database, provide the database name (e.g. Gale Virtual Reference Library) and any identification number in parentheses after the publication details (14.271).


  Lectures, Papers presented at meetings, and the like (14.226)
  • When citing lectures and papers presented, include the following information in the note and
    bibliography: the speaker's name, title of lecture or speech in quotation marks
    and the sponsorship, location and date of presentation.
  • If you are citing a class lecture, include your professor's name, title of lecture in quotation marks,
    the course number and name and the location and date.


Film / Film Scene (14.278 - 14.280)

  • Include such information as: creator(s), title, publisher, date and medium (e.g. DVD) (14.278).
  • When citing online multimedia, include the same information as when citing a film, but also add an electronic file name or URL and access date if no publication details are provided.  If the online material is a digitized version of a performance or published source, then information about the original performance or source should be included in the note and bibliography (14.280).
  • Film Scenes (individually accessible in DVDs, e.g. "Conversation with Annette") are treated as chapters and cited by title or by number (14.279). For example:


Secondary Source (14.273)

Example: Beauvoir's book is referenced in Butler's journal article:

 Example: Zukofsky's article is referenced in Costello's book:                 

                   24. Louis Zukofsky, “Sincerity and Objectification,” Poetry 37 (February 1931): 269, quoted in Bonnie Costello, Marianne Moore: Imaginary Possessions (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1981), 78.


  • As the style manual notes, citing sources from a secondary source is not a recommended practice. Whenever possible, the original source should be located and fully cited.
  • In the footnote, start with the author and publication details of original work. Add the text "quoted in" and then add the author and publication details of the secondary work, the source you consulted. Make sure you use the correct format for a book or for an article (e.g. Note 23 vs. Note 24).
  • The original and the secondary source must both appear in the Bibliography.


Custom Courseware
Comments Custom Courseware packages are compilations of journal articles, book chapters and other materials selected by your instructor. The Chicago/Turabian manual does not give specific advice about citing these materials, so you will have to use your judgment and come up with your own solution.

If you need to cite a source from a Custom Courseware package, here are two suggestions. However, our strong recommendation is to first check with your instructor.

1. Find the full citation where the article, chapter, etc. was originally published, and cite accordingly. The full citations may be included on the first page of the coursepack. If not, search a relevant database or the library catalogue, or ask a librarian.

2. Treat the Courseware package as an anthology, and the instructor who did the compilation as a book editor/compiler. Therefore, treat the article, chapter, etc. as if it was part of an anthology, or edited book. Most probably you will not have the page numbers, since the Custom Courseware is not a true publication and is not paginated throughout. You will also have to include the name of the compiler, the title of the Courseware, the name of the course (e.g. CMNS 210), the semester (e.g. Spring 2006) and the publisher (Simon Fraser University). Bear in mind that someone trying to find the article/chapter from a coursepack you cited might not have access to the same coursepack.


Using RefWorks
  • The Chicago/Turabian style often requires that writers enter page numbers to a citation. However, RefWorks does not know which page number to use and automatically enters the page numbers stored in your RefWorks account - usually the starting page and/or a page range.
  • RefWorks will allow you to use "switches" to alter your citations to include a specific page:

    /s - Cite a specific page in-text or in a footnote or endnote:
    The /s switch is an override for the page numbers stored in the database record. By applying this switch, you can cite specific page numbers in an in-text citation and in a generated footnote or endnote. Your citation should look like {{1 Smith 2003/s43}}. After formatting, it would be (Smith 2003, 43) for an in-text citation. A footnote would include p. 43 instead of the page numbers stored in your RefWorks account.

  • See RefWorks documentation for full details on switches:
Additional Web Resources